Teach-in 2004 : 3D foot kinematics from plantar pressure data
by Chris Kirtley, The Catholic University of America, Washington DC

Measurement of foot kinematics has proven to be one of the greatest challenges in gait analysis (Wright et al, 1964; Scott and Winter, 1991 & 1993). Until now, most laboratories only measure sagittal motion (doris/plantarflexion), with a few routinely reporting frontal plane (inversion/eversion) kinematics. Recently, with advances in digital camera technology, there has been some success with tracking markers attached to the skin over the many small foot bones (Kidder et al, 1996; Liu et al, 1997; Leardini et al, 1999; Carson et al, 2000; Theologis et al, 2003), or using small clusters (Jenkyn, 2002). However, there are still many problems to be solved, such as skin-bone motion artifact and identifiction of bony landmarks. The talus, for example, is impossible to track with surface markers (Taioli, 1997)

An interesting alternative approach has recently been described based on plantar pressure data (Hagman, 2001). The contact point of the calcaneus is modeled as a rigid sphere rolling over a flat rigid surface. From the pressure distribution, centre of pressure (CoP) and local radius of curvature of the calcaneus are estimated. From the change in radius, the angular velocity of the calcaneus is calculated, and thence the inversion/eversion angle:

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