Normalisation for walking speed, cadence & stride length

Steplength = 1.1 v'^1/2 +- 0.2
A1 W-' = (2.91 +- 0.52 ) * 0.01
A2 W+' = 0.046 s'^2

    Your quest for normalized data for joint moments, work etc is 
certainly very relevant. I have some scattered data on this point, 
all expressed in dimensionless quantities s' = s/l , W' = W/mgl etcetera.

>From Hof, Geelen and Van den Berg, " Calf muscle moment, work and 
efficiency in level walking" J Biomech 16: 523 - 537 (1983): 

Preferred steplength s' at an imposed speed v' 
    s' = 1.1 v'^1/2 +- 0.2
negative work at ankle, Winter's A1
    W-' = (2.91 +- 0.52 ) * 0.01  (independent of speed or steplength)

>From Hof et al. "Calf muscle work and segment energy changes in humen 
treadmill walking", J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 2: 203 - 216 (1993):

positive work at ankle, Winter's A2
    W+' = 0.046 s'^2   (dependent on steplength only).
kinetic+potential energy of swing leg
    E' = 0.23 v'^2
Data that relate joint moments, work, etc to speed are very relevant 
indeed as a reference in  patient research, because these people 
usually walk at speeds far below "normal". Gait labs with those nice 
VICONs or ELITEs and undergraduate students should have no problem to 
gather these data from normal subjects!
    We - that is our  Laboratory of Human Movement Analysis- are in 
the process of preparing EMG data obtained at walking speeds between 
0.5 and 2 m/s. If there is interest we can post them when ready.

Greetings from NL,At Hof
Department of Medical Physiology    
University of Groningen
Bloemsingel 10
The Netherlands
Phone: (31) 50 3632645
Fax:   (31) 50 3632751

(14 June 1996)

Email your comments to [n/a]

Back to Clinical Gait Analysis home page