CGA FAQ: Books on Gait Analysis

from BIOMCH-L 10/10/2001

Hello All:

Below you will find all the responses I received to my post titled
"Graduate Biomechanics Texts."  Based on the responses, it would seem that
several of us struggle with similar text book issues. My sincere thanks to
all of you who contributed. Based on the responses, I have ordered several
desk copies and will post a response once I have had time to evaluate them.


Jim Martin

Original Post

Hello All:
One of the courses I teach is a masters level biomechanics course. For
several years I have been using Winter's "Biomechanics and Motor Control of
Human Movement" and I really like the format and flow of that text.
Unfortunately, the students are frustrated by the numerous errors and the
cavalier way in which some of the examples are worked out. My students
usually come in to this class with a wide variety of math backgrounds and
some are quite challenged by the equations for dynamic equilibrium (hence
they find errors in solutions maddening).
The focus of the course is on inverse dynamic solutions (i.e. getting
though chapter 4) and estimating muscle forces (chapter 5).
Can any of you recommend an alternative text that will allow me to teach
the course in the same way but reduce the frustration of my students?
Thanks in advance,


Raoul F. Reiser II at University of Wyoming  <>   wrote:
If you get some good advice I would like to hear it.  I too plan to use
Winter's text in the future, but would like something with less errors and
possibly a little more up to date.  Have you ever looked at
Three-dimensional analysis of human movement by Allard et al, published by
HK?  It has all the right topics, but found it to be way too challenging
for the students I would be working with.  Enoka's text is supposed to have
a new version out and they have made enough changes to also change the
title.  I don't know if it expands enough now though to cover what you are
looking for.

Ruth E. Mayagoitia-Hill at Stratfordshire University
<>   wrote:
How about my favorite: Barney Le Veau, "Williams and
Lissner's  Biomechanics of Human Motion", WB Saunders Co, ISBN 072165743-5.
Also  available in French and Spanish. There are some misprints, but
only  a few.

Raul Diaz Gonzalez <>  at Laboratorio de Análisis de
Movimiento, Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Teletón   wrote:
I can recommend the book written by Dr. Cappozzo. I had the opportunity to
attend his course in Florence last November and his book is wonderful. It
is available through

Bryan St. Laurent  <>  at Arizona State University  wrote:
There is a great book that is just out by Gary T. Yamaguchi (Arizona State
University).   Professor Yamaguchi uses Kane's Method (a vector based
approach) for biomechanical analysis in 3D.  There are chapters on muscle
modeling and inverse dynamics.

Roozbeh Naemi <>   wrote:
As I used Newton-Euler's Inverse Dynamic equations in my MSc thesis, I
think that chapter 8 of "Three-Dimensional Analysis of Human Movement"
Edited by Paul Allard, Ian Stokes, Jeanne-Pierre Blanchi Copyright 1995
384pp   ISBN: 0873226232 by the title of "Euler's and Lagrange's Equations
for Linked Rigid-Body Models of Three-Dimensional Human Motion" by James G
Andrews is the simplest and best text for Inverse Dynamic Equations. In my
opinion it is very suitable for students with average base of mathematics.

Priya Radhakrishnan  <> at University of Illinois at Chicago
Having taken a course myself with that textbook, I agree that the numerous
errors and examples are not sufficient and frustrating. Unfortunately I do
not know of any other useful texts. My only suggestion is to focus more on
the concepts and work through some of the more basic problems that allows
one to understand the methodology of inverse dynamics and approach it more
practically by assigning the more challenging problems that require the use
of a programming software such as Matlab as well as use journal articles as
supplements. Hope this helps. Good luck.

At Hof   <>  at Institute of Human Movement Sciences &
Laboratory of Human Movement Analysis AZG University of Groningen
I can agree with the feelings of you and your students. Winter's  book is
valuable, I learned the trade myself from it, but a good  course should
contain some more fundamental stuff. Other texts are even more basic, they
seldom rise above M = force x arm.
Then later Dr. Hof wrote:
You already got an answer from me, but recently I came across a new book:
"Human Body Dynamics" by A. Tozeren Springer, New York, 2000 ISBN
0-387-98801-7  I had only time to browse it superficially. It is not what I
hoped it to  be. Most kinesiology texts are a lot of anatomy, but
very  elementary mechanics. The notable exception is Winter.  This book is
quite the contrary. It is a thorough text on classical  mechanics, with
examples taken from biomechanics, but not real  biomechanics. I mean - the
theory seems alright, be it rather 'heavy' - but it falls short in
practice  E.g. local reference frames are used very extensively in
the  derivation of the angular velocity vector (ch 9) but I have as yet not
found how to compute it from the derivatives of the rotation matrices.
Inverse dynamics in treated only very cursorily, no examples or  practical
considerations. Examples are often quite artificial. Maybe this text will
be appreciated by your boimed eng students  but for kinesiology students it
is way too difficult and too far from practice. It may be a good book for
the teacher to look how it really is, or to get ideas for problems. I think
it is a good thing to exchange findings this way.

Richard N. Hinrichs, Ph.D. <> Dept. of Exercise Science and
Physical Education Arizona State University wrote:
I use Nordin and Frankel (2001) for my course entitled Biomechanics of the
Skeletal System.  We also use an out of print book by Wiktorin and Nordin
(1986) entitled "Problem Solving in Biomechanics".  I got permission to
reprint it ourselves at the copy center.  This course might not be at the
same level as your course since we only do static equilibrium problems to
compute muscle and joint forces.  The course is a combined senior
undergraduate/beginning graduate course and follow the Nordin and Frankel
book fairly closely.

Winter, David A.
The biomechanics and motor control of human gait : normal, elderly and pathological
Waterloo, Ont. : University of Waterloo Press, c1991. 2nd ed.

Winter, David A.
Biomechanics and motor control of human movement
New York : Wiley, c1990.2nd ed.

Winter, David A
A.B.C. (anatomy, biomechanics and control) of balance during standing and walking
Waterloo, Ont. : Waterloo Biomechanics, c1995.

Whittle, Michael.
Gait analysis : an introduction
Oxford ; Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann, 1991.

Perry, Jacquelin.
Gait analysis : normal and pathological function
Thorofare, N.J. : SLACK, c1992.

Inman VT, Ralston HJ, Todd F
Human Walking
Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1981, 1st edition

Rose J, Gamble JG
Human Walking
Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1994, 2nd edition

Vaughan CL, Davis BL, O'Connor J
Dynamics of Human Gait
Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics, 1992, 1st edition

Vaughan CL, Davis BL, O'Connor J
Dynamics of Human Gait
Cape Town : Kiboho Publishers, 1999, 2nd edition

Gage, James R.
Gait analysis in cerebral palsy
London : Mac Keith Press ; Oxford : Blackwell Scientific Publishers ;
New York : Cambridge
University Press , 1991.

DeLisa, Joel A.
Gait analysis in the science of rehabilitation.
Washington : Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administation, 1998.

Craik, Rebecca.
Gait analysis : theory and application
St. Louis : Mosby, 1995.

Sutherland, David H.
The Development of Mature Walking
Blackwell, Oxford (U.K.) 1989.

Also have a look at the following FAQ pages:

Our "beginners" like the simplicity of

Perry, Jacquelin. "The Mechanics of Walking: A Clinical Interpretation."  in: Principles of
Lower-Extremity Bracing. Eds. Jacquelin Perry and Helen J. Hislop.  Washington, D. C.: Am.
Phys. Ther. Assoc., 1973, pp. 9-32.

Perry, Jacquelin. "The Mechanics of Walking:
A Clinical Interpretation."  in: Principles of Lower-Extremity Bracing.
 Eds. Jacquelin Perry and Helen J. Hislop.
Washington, D. C.:
Am. Phys. Ther. Assoc., 1973, pp. 9-32.
David E. Krebs, PhD, PT
Professor and Director, MGH Biomotion Laboratory
MGH Institute of Health Professions
101 Merrimac Street
Boston, MA 02114-4719
V: 617 726 8016
F: 617 726 8022

Some key journal references (suggested by Tonio Agius)

ANDRIACCHI, T.P., ANDERSSON, G.B.J., FERMIER, R.W. (1980) A study of lower limb mechanics during stair-climbing. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 62A No 5

BECK, R.J.; ANDRIACCHI, T.P.; KUO, K.N.; FERMIER, R.W.; GALANTE, J.O.  (1981)  Changes in the gait patterns of growing children. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery [Am] 63 (9): pp1452-7
BORGHESE, N.A.; BIANCHI, L.; LACQUANITI, F. (1996) Kinematic determinants of human locomotion. Journal of Physiology (Lond) (JQV); 494 ( Pt 3) pp863-79

BRINKMANN, J.R.; PERRY, J. (1985) rate and range of knee motion during ambulation in healthy and arthritic subjects. Physical Therapy. 65(7):pp1055-1060

CHAO, E.Y.S.; LAUGHMAN, R.K.; SCHNEIDER, E.; STAUFFER, R.H. (1983)  Normative data of knee joint motion and ground reaction forces in adult level walking Journal of Biomechanics. 21: pp705-720

CHARTERIS, J. (1982) Human gait cyclograms: conventions, speed relationships and clinical applications. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. (GRL); 5 (4): pp507-18

DAVIS, R.B.; OUNPUU, S.; DELUCA, P.A.; ROMNESS, M.J. (1998) Clinical Gait Analysis and its role in Treatment Decision Making. Medscape Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine http:www//

DE LUZIO, K.J.; et al.(1993) A procedure to validate three-dimensional motion assessment systems. Journal of Biomechanics 26, pp753-759.

DILLINGHAM, T.R.; LEHMANN; J.F.; PRICE; R. (1992) Effect of lower limb on body propulsion. Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation (8BK) 73 (7): pp647-651

DINGWELL, J.B.; DAVIS, B.L.; FRAZIER, D.M.  Use of an instrumented treadmill for real-time gait symmetry evaluation and feedback in normal and trans-tibial amputee subjects. Prosthetics and Orthotics

EASTLACK, M.E.; ARVIDSON, J.; SNYDER-MACKLER, L.; DANOFF, J.V.;   MCGARVEY, C.L.   (1991) Interrater reliability of videotaped observational gait-analysis assessments. Physical Therapy. (P6W), 71 (6): pp465-72

EHARA, Y ET AL (1995) Comparison of the performance of 3D camera systems", Gait and Posture. Vol 3, pp166-169

ENG, J.; WINTER, D. (1995) Kinetic analysis of the lower limbs during walking: what information can be obtained from a three dimensional model. Journal of Biomechanics. 28(6):pp753-758

GAGE, J.R. (1993)Gait analysis. An essential tool in the treatment of cerebral palsy  Clinical  Orthop (DFY) Mar; (288): 126-34

GARD, S.A.; KNOX, E.H.; CHILDRESS, D.S. (1996)Two-dimensional representation of three-dimensional pelvic motion during human walking: an example of how projections can be misleading Journal of Biomechanics. (HJF), 29 (10): pp1387-91

GRIEVE, D.W. (1969) The assessment of gait Physiotherapy. 55: pp452-460

HAGGARD, P. WING, A.M. (1990). Assessing and Reporting the Accuracy of PositionMeasurements Made With Optical Tracking Systems.  Journal of Motor Behaviour

JASUJA, O.P.; HARBHAJAN, S.; ANUPAMA, K. (1997) Estimation of stature from stride length while walking fast. Forensic Science International (F49; 86 (3): 181-6

JEVSEVAR, D.S.; O’RILEY, P.; HODGE, W.A., KREBS, D.E. (1993) Knee kinematics and kinetics during locomotor activities of daily living in subjects with knee arthroplasty and in healthy control subjects. Physical Therapy. 73 (4): pp229-242

KEENAN, A.M. BACH, T.M. (1996) Video assessment of rearfoot movements during walking : a reliability study Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation. 77: pp651-655

KERRIGAN, D.C.; TODD, M.K.; DELLA CROCE, U. (1998) Gender differences in joint biomechanics during walking: normative study in young adults. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 77(1):2-7  Jan-Feb

KLENERMAN, L. DOBBS, R.J. WELLER, C. LEEMAN, A.L. NICHOLSON, P.W. (1988) Bringing gait analysis out of the laboratory and into the clinic Age and Ageing. 17:pp397-400

LAFORTUNE, M.A. CAVANAGH, P.R. SOMMER III, H.J. KALENAK, A. (1992) Three dimensional kinematics of the human knee during walking Journal of Biomechanics. 25(4): pp347-357

LAMOREUX, L.W. (1971) Kinematic measurements in the study of human walking. Bulletin of Prosthetic Research. (10) 15-3:pp3-83

MACFARLANE, P.A. NIELSEN, D.H. (1996) Gait analysis a cost and time efficient video method for use in the clinic or classroom Clinical Knesiology. pp99-105

MAHONEY, F.I.; BARTHEL, D.W. (1965) Functional evaluation: Barthel Index Md Sate Medical Journal 14:pp61-65

MAREY, E.J. (1895) Movement in Murray et al (1964), Walking patterns of normal men Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery . 46A:pp335-360

MORELAND, J.; GOWLAND, C.; VAN HULLENAAR, S.; HUIJBREGTS, M.; (1993) Theoretical basis of the Chedoke-McMaster stroke assessment inventory. Physiotherapy Canada  45:pp231-238

MUELLER MJ; NORTON BJ Reliability of kinematic measurements of rear-foot motion. Physical Therapy. (P6W), 1992 Oct; 72 (10): 731-7

MURRAY, M.P. DROUGHT, A.B. KORY, R.C. (1964) Walking patterns of normal men Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery . 46A:pp335-360

NISSAN M; WHITTLE MW (1990) Initiation of gait in normal subjects: a preliminary study. Journal of Biomedical Engineering. 12(2):165-71  Mar

PROFESSIONAL STAFF ASSOCIATION, RANCHO LOS AMIGOS MEDICAL CENTRE. (1989) Obsevational gait analysis handbook; Downey, California

RAMAKRISHNAN, H.K.; KADABA, M.P. (1991) On the estimation of joint kinematics during gait. SOURCE:  Journal of Biomechanics. (HJF), 24 (10): pp969-77

Guide for use of the uniform data set for medical rehabilitation. Buffalo

RODGERS, M.M. in JEVSEVAR, D.S.; O’RILEY, P.; HODGE, W.A., KREBS, D.E. (1993) Knee kinematics and kinetics during locomotor activities of daily living in subjects with knee arthroplasty and in healthy control subjects.(Commentary) Physical Therapy. 73 (4): pp229-242

ROSE, J.R. GAMBLE, J.G. (1994) Human Walking pp:222 Baltimore, Maryland Williams and Wilkins

SALEH, M. MURDOCH, G. (1985) In defence of gait analysis Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 67B: pp237-241

SAUNDERS, J.B. DE, C.M. INMAN, V.T. EBERHART, H.D. (1953) The major determinants in normal and pathological gait Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. [Am]; 35A:pp543-558

SEKIYA, N.; NAGASAKI, H.; ITO, H.; FURUNA, T. (1997) Optimal walking in terms of variability in step length Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 26 (5): pp266-272

SIENKO, T.; BARNET, J. (1994) Walking through gait analysis. Orthopaedic Nursing. 13(6): pp7-13

STANHOPE, S.J.; KEPPLE, T.M.; MCGUIRE, D.A.; ROMAN, N.L. (1990) Kinematic-based technique for event time determination during gait. Med Biol Eng Comput (LPN), 28 (4): pp355-60

STANIC, U.; BAJD, T.; VALENCIC, V.; KLJAJIC, M.; ACIMOVIC, R. (1977) Standardisation of kinematic gait measurements and automatic pathological gait pattern diagnostics. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (UD3); 9 (3): 95-105

STILLMAN, B.; McMEEKEN, J. (1996) Use of a videotime display in determining general gait measures Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 42(3)pp213-217

STUBERG, W.A. COLERICK, V.L. BLANKE, D.J. BRUCE, W. (1988) Comparison of a clinical gait analysis method using videography and temporal-distance measures with 16mm cinematography; Physical Therapy. 68:pp1221-1225

TENNANT, A.; FEAR, J.; PICKERING, A.; HILLMAN, M.; COUTTS, A.; CHAMBERLAIN, M.A. (1995) Prevalence of knee problems in the population aged 55 years and over: identifying the need for arthroplasty  British Medical journal. 310:pp1291-1293

WALL, J.C.; SCARBROUGH, (1997) Use of a multimemory stopwatch to measure temporal gait parameters; Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 25(4):pp277-281

WALL, J.C. (1991) Measurement of temporal gait parameters from videotape using a field counting technique International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. 14(4):pp344-347

WALL, J.C.; CROSBIE,J. (1996) Accuracy and reliability of temporal gait measurement Gait and Posture. (4):pp293-296

WALL, J.C.; CROSBIE,J. (1997) Temporal gait analysis using slow motion video and a personal computer Physiotherapy. 83(3):pp109-115

WHITTLE, M. (1991) Gait analysis : an introduction.  Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, U.K.

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