<!doctype html public "-//w3c//dtd html 4.0 transitional//en"> <html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"> <meta name="Author" content="Dr. Chris Kirtley"> <meta name="GENERATOR" content="Mozilla/4.8 [en] (Windows NT 5.0; U) [Netscape]"> <title>Walking Art</title> </head> <body> <h1> Walking as Art</h1> <h2> Footwear</h2> <i>Shoes hold the key to human identity.</i>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Sonja Bata, founder of the Bata Shoe Museum, Toronto (<i>Trueheart</i> 1995:C10) <br>&nbsp; <h3> Terry Gilliam (Monty Python)</h3> <img SRC="mp_fb.gif" BORDER=0 height=294 width=610> The Foot <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.uoregon.edu/~connolly/FRsandals.htm">The World's Oldest Shoes</a></h3> Humans were wearing shoes at least 40,000 years ago, according to scientists who have examined the curled-up toes of an ancient skeleton. <p><a target="_blank" href="http://artsci.wustl.edu/~anthro/blurb/b_trink.html">Erik Trinkaus</a> and Hong Shang of Washington University in Missouri, measured the shape and density of the toe bones from a 40,000-year-old skeleton found in Tianyuan cave near Beijing. <p>They then compared them with those from 20th century urban Americans' feet, late-prehistoric Native Americans and late-prehistoric Inuits. <p>The pair could make assumptions about footwear because shoes change the shape of the foot. <p>A rigid sole meant toes curled far less than when barefoot and less force was passed through the bones. <p>That created obvious differences in the three populations, according to an <a target="_blank" href="http://www.newscientist.com/channel/being-human/mg19726405.100-ancient-bones-suggest-cavemen-wore-boots.html">article in the New Scientist</a>. <p>"Modern shoe-wearing Americans have wimpy little toes. Barefoot native Americans have strong, large toes. Shoe-wearing Inuits lie somewhere in between," Mr Trinkaus said. <p>The scientists said the Tianyuan toe bones were most similar to the Inuits', indicating their owner regularly wore shoes. <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WH8-4GFCT3T-3&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=fb373099a5aff43a5ac812c1497ad483">Trinkaus, E. (2005) Anatomical evidence for the antiquity of human footwear use. Journal of Archaeological Science 32, 1515-1526</a> <p><img SRC="sandal1.jpg" ALT="Sagebrush bark sandal from Catlow Cave (9300 bp)" BORDER=0 height=312 width=200>In 1938 archaeologist Luther Cressman (from the University of Oregon) excavated at Fort Rock Cave, located in a small volcanic <br>butte approximately half a mile west of the Fort Rock volcanic crater in central Oregon. The Fort Rock Basin is the most northwesterly sub-basin of the Great Basin, Western North America's vast intermontane desert. <p>Cressman found dozens of sandals below a layer of volcanic ash, subsequently determined to come from the eruption of the Mt. <br>Mazama volcano 7500 years ago. Named for the site where they were first found, Fort Rock-style sandals have since been <br>reported from ancient deposits in several Northern Great Basin caves. <p><img SRC="sandal2.jpg" ALT="Sagebrush sandals from Flat Rock (10,500-9,300 bp)" BORDER=0 height=241 width=200 align=LEFT>Fort Rock sandals are stylistically distinct. They are twined (pairs of weft fibers twisted around warps), and have a flat, close-twined sole, usually with five rope warps. Twining proceeded from the heel to the toe, where the warps were subdivided into finer warps and turned back toward the heel. These fine warps were then open-twined (with spaces between the weft rows) to make a toe flap. Cressman surmised that a tie rope attached to one edge of the sole wrapped around the ankle and fastened to the opposite edge. <p>Most dated Fort Rock-style sandals are from Fort Rock Cave, but directly dated sandals of this type are also known from Cougar Mountain and Catlow Caves. Directly dated Fort Rock style sandals range in age from at least 10,500 BP to 9200 BP (based on dendrocalibrated radiocarbon ages). For more information, refer to Connolly and Cannon 1999. <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><u>Directly dated Fort Rock-style sandals, northern Great Basin.</u></span></center> <center><table BORDER CELLPADDING=0 WIDTH="100%" style="width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing: 1.5pt;mso-padding-alt:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt" > <tr> <td VALIGN=TOP WIDTH="11%" style="width:11.0%;padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1><sup>14</span><span style='font-size:10.0pt'></sup>C Age</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP WIDTH="11%" style="width:11.0%;padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Lab No.</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP WIDTH="16%" style="width:16.0%;padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Age Range (cal BP, 1 sigma)</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP WIDTH="19%" style="width:19.0%;padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Dated Material</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP WIDTH="17%" style="width:17.0%;padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Site</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP WIDTH="24%" style="width:24.0%;padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Reference(s)</font></span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>9188&plusmn;480<sup>*</sup></font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>C-428a</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>10,920-9650 BP</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>sagebrush bark</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Fort Rock Cave</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Arnold and Libby 1951</font></span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>8916&plusmn;540<sup>*</sup></font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>C-428b</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>10,440-9380 BP</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>sagebrush bark</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Fort Rock Cave</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Cressman 1951; Bedwell and Cressman 1971</font></span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>8308&plusmn;43</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>AA-30056</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>9380-9240 BP</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>sagebrush bark</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Catlow Cave</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Connolly and Cannon 1999</font></span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>8510&plusmn;250</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>UCLA-112</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>9840-9240 BP</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>tule</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Cougar Mtn. Cave</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Ferguson and Libby 1962; Connolly 1994</font></span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>8500&plusmn;140</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>I-1917</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>9530-9380 BP</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>sagebrush bark</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Fort Rock Cave</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Bedwell and Cressman 1971</font></span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>9215&plusmn;140</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>AA-9249</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>10,360-10,020 BP</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>sagebrush bark</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Fort Rock Cave?</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Connolly and Cannon 1999</font></span></div> </td> </tr> <tr> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>8715&plusmn;105</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>AA-9250</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <center><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>9870-9520 BP</font></span></center> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>sagebrush bark</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Fort Rock Cave?</font></span></div> </td> <td VALIGN=TOP style="padding:3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt 3.75pt"> <div class="MsoNormal"><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><font size=-1>Connolly and Cannon 1999</font></span></div> </td> </tr> </table></center> <font size=-1>The commonly cited 9053&plusmn;350 age for the "Fort Rock sandal" is actually an average of these two dates, run on "several pairs of woven rope sandals" (Arnold and Libby 1951:117). The weighted average of these two ages produces an age range of 10,390-9650 cal BP.</font> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><font size=-1>Arnold, J. R. and W. F. Libby 1951 Radiocarbon Dates. <i>Science</i> 113(2927):111-120.</font> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><font size=-1>Bedwell, Stephen F. and Luther S. Cressman 1971 Fort Rock Report: Prehistory and Environment of the Pluvial Fort Rock Lake Area of South-Central Oregon. In <i>Great Basin Anthropological Conference 1970: Selected Papers</i>, edited by C. Melvin Aikens, pp. 1-25. University of Oregon Anthropological Papers 1. Eugene</font> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><font size=-1>Connolly, Thomas J. and William J. Cannon 1999 Comments on "America's Oldest Basketry." <i>Radiocarbon</i> 41(3):309-313.</font> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><font size=-1>Cressman, Luther S. 1951 Western Prehistory in the Light of Carbon 14 Dating. <i>Southwestern Journal of Anthropology</i> 7(3):289-313.</font> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><font size=-1>Cressman, Luther S. 1942 <i>Archaeological Researches in the Northern Great Basin</i>. Carnegie Institution of Washingon Publication 538. Washington, D. C.</font> <p style="margin-left:.5in;text-indent:-.25in;mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1; tab-stops:list .5in"><font size=-1>Ferguson, G. J. and W. F. Libby 1962 UCLA Radiocarbon Dates. <i>Radiocarbon</i> 4:109-114.</font> <br> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> &Ouml;tzi, Iceman of the Alps (3350-3300 BC)</h3> <img SRC="1shoe.jpg" ALT="the iceman's shoes" HSPACE=10 VSPACE=10 BORDER=1 height=305 width=200 align=LEFT><img SRC="_38258176_oetzi_300_ap.jpg" ALT="Oetzi, AP" BORDER=0 height=180 width=315 align=RIGHT>On September 19th, 1991, Helmut and Erika Simon, a couple from Nuremberg mountaineering in the &Ouml;tztal Alps at a height of 3200 m discovered a&nbsp;<img SRC="Iceman_Shoe.jpg" height=206 width=175 align=RIGHT>corpse, the upper part of which protruded from the glacier. The well-preserved body of a 30-to-45-year old man affectionately dubbed "Oetzi" for his resting-place in the Oetz Valley, near the border with Austria in the Italian Alps, was in a state of near perfect preservation. Oetzi was eventually dated to 3350-3300 BC (late Neolithic). The man of the ice wore shoes on his feet. They&nbsp; consisted of an oval leather sole with turned-up edges held in place with a leather thong. The soles are made of cowhide attached to straps of a net like construction of knotted grass cords. A net woven out of grass was attached to this on the inside to hold in place the hay that was stuffed inside (like socks) as protection against the cold. The shoe was closed with deer leather uppers attached to the sole by a plain-stitched leather thong. The linden bark netting covered the tab on the leggin thus holding the two together. Attached to the sole are upper pieces of leather, presumably of fur, which formed the boot shape, tied at the ankle with grass cords.Whereas the sole of the shoe is made of brown bear skin, the uppers are made of deerskin. The&nbsp; uppers were closed using "shoe-laces". He is now in the South Tyrol Museum in Bolzano in a special cold storage chamber (kept at constant 0 to -6 C) .<img SRC="mapgood.jpg" HSPACE=3 BORDER=0 height=345 width=398 align=RIGHT> <p>Researchers at Tomas Bata University in the Czech Republic are undertaking a study of the Iceman's footwear.&nbsp;<img SRC="ice_window.jpg" HSPACE=3 BORDER=0 height=206 width=306 align=LEFT>They have constructed three pairs of animal skin shoes that replicate those worn by &Ouml;tzi. Three members of the research team will visit an area near &Ouml;tzi's discovery site, put on the replicas, and take a two-hour hike. The shoes will be removed and studied. Afterwards, researchers intend to donate them to an unnamed museum. The task of making replicas of his shoes was not easy. Besides analyzing the various materials used to construct the original shoes, researchers had to determine how the Iceman (or his shoemaker) cut and tanned the skins. They also wondered whether the dried grass still grew in the region. Analysis revealed that fats from animal brains and livers were used to make the tanning solution, that a flint rock was used to cut the skins, and that the same grass still grows. These details were used in constructing the replicas. <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://podiatry.curtin.edu.au/history.html">History of Footwear (by Cameron Kippen)</a> ... and <a target="_blank" href="http://podiatry.curtin.edu.au/footsex.html">podophilia (<i>not for the prudish!</i>)</a></h3> <img SRC="b.jpg" HSPACE=3 BORDER=0 height=128 width=197>Sandal, 8000 BC<img SRC="d.jpg" HSPACE=3 BORDER=0 height=130 width=186>Soft boots 500 AD <p><img SRC="e.jpg" HSPACE=3 BORDER=0 height=124 width=263> Poulaine 1200<img SRC="g.jpg" HSPACE=3 BORDER=0 height=124 width=189>Duck's Bill 1500 <p><img SRC="slip.jpg" HSPACE=3 BORDER=0 height=117 width=116> Slippers 1700<img SRC="i.jpg" HSPACE=3 BORDER=0 height=111 width=195>High-heel 1800 <p><img SRC="k3.jpg" BORDER=0 height=90 width=250> 1920<img SRC="k5.jpg" BORDER=0 height=123 width=211>1950 <p><img SRC="k2.jpg" BORDER=0 height=142 width=187> 1960<img SRC="k4.jpg" BORDER=0 height=116 width=187>1970<img SRC="B417400white" BORDER=0 height=145 width=145><img SRC="engineer.jpg" ALT="Engineering" HSPACE=3 BORDER=0 height=146 width=135> <br><img SRC="emu.jpg" height=263 width=396> Australian Aboriginal sandals made from Emu feathers <h3> <hr WIDTH="100%"><a href="/art/KippenLNL.mp3">Phillip Adams: Plunging in feet first, October 05, 2002</a></h3> As usual, the human race has one foot in the grave. And as our political, military and environmental crises escalate, the second foot may follow. Or, to borrow another podiatral turn of phrase, the other shoe will fall. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; As we teeter on the edge of the abyss, it seems a good time to amuse ourselves by taking a look <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; at, yes, feet. As a distraction from our army-booted march to disaster, let's look at some of the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; bizarre facts surrounding footwear. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; What follows is an Emma Tom-ish exercise in shoe fetishism. It's a consequence of my tripping <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; over a scholarly version of Imelda Marcos. Cameron Kippen, who speaks in the richest of Scottish <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; brogues, is a lecturer in podiatry at the Curtin Institute of Technology in Perth, where he teaches <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; about brogues of a different sort. Along with boots, slippers, sandals, galoshes, wellies, high-heels <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and clogs. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; These days we seem inured to shock. Human proclivities and perversions no longer raise eyebrows <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; or frisson. But when Cameron opened Pandora's shoe box and the filthy truth about feet escaped, I <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; felt a mixture of fascination and repulsion. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; For example, in the high Middle Ages, men began to wear long-toed shoes called pigaches or <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; poulaines. Cameron explained that the fashion lasted more than 300 years, during which the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; extensions became longer and longer until walking was all but impossible. Blatantly phallic, the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; style required the toes of the shoe to be connected to the knee with a chain so as to prevent <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; tripping. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; And young bucks started to stuff wool and moss into the extensions to keep them erect. To <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; emphasise the erotic implications of these medieval winklepickers, it was customary to paint them <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; flesh pink. And allow them to flap, Cameron notes, with lifelike mobility. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Were talking about the ends of the feet being extended by up to 60cm. Small bells were often <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; attached to the end of the poulaine to indicate that the wearer was a willing partner in sexual frolic. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Playing footsie under the table became increasingly rampant. While boring conversations were <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; being held over the meal, the poulaines were being employed under the petticoats and between the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; thighs of female guests. Consequently even a simple three-course dinner could become <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; multi-orgasmic. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Polite society was outraged by the poulaines and youths were chastised for standing on street <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; corners waggling their toes suggestively as women walked by. Little wonder that the Catholic <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Church saw poulaines as a threat to virtue, chastity and decency. Apart from anything else, they <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; physically prevented men from kneeling in prayer. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Branding the shoes as Satan's curse - or Satan's claw - the Vatican passed laws against them. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Nonetheless they maintained their popularity, even when the clergy insisted that the Black Death <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; was God's revenge for, yes, a style of shoe. (Incidentally, few women wore them because, at the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; time, members of their gender were being persecuted as witches if they wore unusual clobber. And <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; a pair of poulaines was enough to have you burned at the stake.) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; According to Cameron, what shooed these shoes was the death of Duke Leopold II of Austria, who <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; died when his poulaines impeded him from escaping assassins. Another factor was French king <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Charles VIII's polydactylism - he had six toes on each foot. To accommodate them comfortably <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; required broad, square-toed shoes that helped change the fashion. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; As erotic as the poulaine, the duck's bill shoe was broad enough to accommodate even Charles <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; VIII's feet. They were as much as 30cm wide, forcing wearers to adopt a waddling gait. The uppers <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; were made from silks, brocades and velvet and the shoes were heavily padded, puffed and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; embroidered. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The upper of the shoe had fine cuts in the leather, says Cameron, to show the coloured hose or <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; sumptuous lining beneath. Often the shoes were lined with soft fur to resemble pubic hair and as the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; foot moved, skin could be observed through the opening and closing slits, vagina-like. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; And to think that, as a bodgie in the 1950s, I thought I was being outrageous when I had a duck's <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; bum haircut and a pair of blue suede shoes. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; For centuries, shoes tended to be largely rationed to the high and the mighty, to pharaohs, kings <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and courtiers. Even when they became more common in the Christian era, they remained expensive <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and exclusive. Costs were so prohibitive, people bequeathed their footwear to family and loved ones, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; says Cameron. Hence the saying, following in your father's footsteps. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Ancient Greek women of ill repute often wore elevated sandals to attract men's attention. According <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; to Cameron, this led to a sexy wiggle that created an audible clacking when walking. Which, in due <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; course, must have produced an almost Pavlovian response in members of my weak and suggestible <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; sex. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; But the modern high heel evolving into the stiletto seems to derive from Catherine de' Medici in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 16th-century Florence. Diminutive in stature, she wore high heels to her wedding - the style <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; becoming an instant success. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Down the track, Louis XIV of France became fanatical about them and forbade any other than the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; privileged classes from wearing high heels, on penalty of death. But then, the Sun King was also <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; short and needed all the help he could get. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Cameron explains that the connection between sexuality and the foot originates in our species' bold <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; decision to walk upright. Apparently our bipedal stance has influenced the anatomical development <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of what Cameron calls the wobbly bits - buttocks, bosoms, tummies and hips. And where <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; quadrupeds largely hide their sexual bits and pieces, we uprights are, one and all, flashers. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Moreover, we're the only species able to copulate standing up and facing each other. Which recalls <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; a joke ``Diamond Jim'' McLelland once told me. Why do Methodists disapprove of having f---s in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; darkened doorways? Because it might lead to dancing. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Wilder Penfield, a 20th-century neurosurgeon, identified the parts of the brain responsible for <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; orgasmic activity - and found they lay in close juxtaposition to the section responsible for feet. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Thereby confirming Freud's belief, says Cameron, of a strong link between feet and sexuality. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; But enough of this. I feel a strong compulsion to rush off and buff my shoes. Those of you wanting to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; put your toes into other people's business can read Cameron's e-book on the history of footwear at: <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; www.podiatry.curtin.edu.au/history.html. For my own part, after burnishing my shoes to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; maximum brightness, I shall take a cold shower. <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5744,5226050%255E12272,00.html"><img SRC="masthead.gif" BORDER=0 height=63 width=468></a> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0821223194/ref=ase_digitoe/002-2083287-0363225">Andy Warhol</a> (who suffered from St. Vitus Dance)</h3> <img SRC="warhol.jpg" ALT="Andy Warhol" BORDER=0 height=152 width=136 align=LEFT>Andy Warhol was born Andrew Warhola in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as the son of immigrants from Ruthenia, where the current boundaries of Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania and the Ukraine meet. His father, Andrej, who travelled much on business trips, died when Warhol was 13. When he was eight (1936), according to his mother Julia, he caught rheumatic fever which developed into chorea (or <a target="_blank" href="http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/story.hts/ae/books/ch1/1144235">St Vitus Dance</a>). In the quixotic <i>Philosophy</i>, he calls it a nervous breakdown. One should remember, when trying to take his books at face value, that he didn't entirely write them, and that he was a liar.) Biographer Bockris reports that Andy came down with chorea in the autumn of 1938, and that illness kept him away from school, an invalid at his mother's side; he occupied a bed off the kitchen for a month. Symptoms of chorea included skin blotches and uncontrolled shaking. Both echoed in Warhol's future, and though he left no direct verbal commentary about what it felt like to shake or to endure dermatological disfigurement, in his mature artworks he refracted these experiences, letting stigma reverberate in painting, film, and performance. Tese later artistic recastings of St. Vitus' Dance represent childhood trauma's consummation, cancellation, and vindication. He found it difficult to control his hand to write or draw and was forced to stay in bed for a month. During this time, his mother provided him with a steady supply of coloring and comic books, magazines, and paper dolls, which enabled him to continue his art-making despite his condition. While incapacitated he played with a Charlie McCarthy doll and made paper cutouts, cultivating early the propensity for fantasy which characterized his personality, Besides altering his birth date and name, Warhol underwent plastic surgery in the 50's to trim his bulbous, red nose but was angered when the operation failed to lend him the glamour he so desperately desired. Also at this time he began dreaming of being a Hollywood star and even wrote to some of his favorite celebrities. He was an albino, with blotchy skin, and was taunted as Spot by his schoolmates. He had linguistic problems stemming from his home environment. At college his fellow students thought he had "a childlike duality about him". He was still living with his mother until the early '70s. <br><img SRC="0821223194.01.LZZZZZZZ.jpg" BORDER=0 height=475 width=425> Shoes, shoes, shoes (book cover) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; His original aspiration was to be a tap dancer, like his first idol, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Shirley Temple. Coming down with chorea, he became a sort of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; dancer. The uncontrolled shaking, at first undiagnosed, leading <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; others to think him clumsy and febrile, took the Shirley fantasy <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; somewhere dark: tap is conscious, while St. Vitus' Dance is <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; hapless. The debate that will later rage over whether Warhol <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; made his own art, or whether he just had assistants do it, begins <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; with the chorea question: who controls Andy's physical <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; movements? His entire career, he will want to pretend not to be <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; their author. From the age of eight he understood possession: and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; therefore he would revise the myth of artistic inspiration, whether <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; demonic or aetherial, and reconceive his body as a machine <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; transmitting movements that bypass consciousness and willpower, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; that automatically repeat, and that embarrass. When he was a <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; college student at Carnegie Tech, studying art and design, he <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; joined the Modern Dance Club, consisting entirely of young <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; women, himself excepted. Arriving in New York, he would live <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; with dancers. His films feature dancers, such as the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; aforementioned 1965 portrait of Paul Swan more Gloria <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Swanson than Rudolf Nureyev. Another dancer who would <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; illustrate, for Warhol, the confusion between deliberate gesture <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and unwilled spasm was Freddy Herko, who appeared in several <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; early films, and who literally danced himself to death (suggesting a <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; vestige of Totentanz in St. Vitus' Dance): Freddy put Mozart's <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Coronation Mass on the hi-fi and leaped out the window. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Andy's St. Vitus' Dance (and the sickbed time spent with his <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; mother) may not have sent him melodramatically into death's <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; arms, but it altered his sense of touch heightening it, turning it <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; into a difficulty not lightly to be engaged. Thereafter he preferred <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; not to be touched; hyperaesthetic, Andy as an adult would visibly <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; recoil when a person attempted a handshake, a hug. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; After St. Vitus' Dance, with its erratic movements, Andy next <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; would confront stillness. His father died when Andy was thirteen. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; According to Julia, her husband drank poisoned water: "Andy <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; was young boy when my husband die. In 1942. My husband <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; three years sick. He go to West Virginia to work, he go to mine <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and drink water. The water was poison. He was sick for three <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; years. He got stomach poisoning. Doctors, doctors, no help." <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Andy would remain fascinated by motionlessness resting <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; bodies, arrested by photography; his movies (which he and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; assistant Gerard Malanga called "stillies") preferred static objects <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and near-motionless individuals. The film moved, but the subjects <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; didn't. Nor do boxes or paintings move. The only thing moving, in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; much of Warhol's art, is time, lapping over icons. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Andy was terrified of his father's dead body: downstairs, laid out <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; for three days, as was customary (the family was Byzantine <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Catholic). Andy refused to pay his respects. He hid under his <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; bed. Death, he now understood, was permanent stillness; until <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; then, it might not have occurred to him that motion, a St. Vitus' <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; affliction he'd wanted to stop, would eventually halt forever. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Andrej's dead body, with Julia sitting beside it, proved motion to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; be not such a bad thing.&nbsp; <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <font color="#000000">HC Westermann</font></h3> <font face="Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif"><font color="#000000"><font size=-1>The Last Ray of Hope, 1968-a pair of Westermann's Marine-issue boots, polished and waxed again and again to a perfect, obsidian-like blackness, in homage to Maxim Gorky's remark that a strong pair of boots "will be of greater service for the ultimate triumph of socialism than black eyes".</font></font></font> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.janeshoe.com/htm/metals_frameset.htm">Jane Rohrschneider</a></h3> <img SRC="andy.jpg" ALT="andy.jpg (9812 bytes)" BORDER=0 height=224 width=300> Andy Warhol Pump <br><img SRC="mosaicyard.jpg" ALT="mosaicyard.jpg (30160 bytes)" BORDER=0 height=217 width=448><img SRC="gardenshoes.jpg" ALT="gardenshoes.jpg (16998 bytes)" BORDER=0 height=247 width=130><img SRC="mosaic2.jpeg.jpg" ALT="mosaic2.jpeg.jpg (15600 bytes)" BORDER=0 height=155 width=174>mosaics&nbsp; <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0500277559/ref=ase_digitoe/002-2083287-0363225">Colin McDowell</a></h3> <img SRC="0500277559.01.LZZZZZZZ.jpg" BORDER=0 height=475 width=314> (book cover) <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.brucegray.com/">Bruce Gray</a></h3> <img SRC="shoes1and2.jpg" BORDER=0 height=274 width=412>"High Heel Shoes #1 &amp; #2" (32x31x14) &amp; (32x28x13), welded aluminum <br><img SRC="shoe4.jpg" BORDER=0 height=374 width=333>"High Heel Shoe #4" (39x27x16), steel &amp; enamel <br><img SRC="shoe4no1.jpg" BORDER=0 height=208 width=324> Shoe #4 at home in Indian Wells, California<img SRC="shoe4no2.jpg" BORDER=0 height=214 width=318> <br><img SRC="shoes2.jpg" BORDER=0 height=340 width=410> "wearable" high heel shoes in stainless steel <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <img SRC="M&Mteens.jpg" BORDER=0 height=216 width=288><a target="_blank" href="http://www.lovein.com/3footshoe.htm">Matthew &amp; Mary Lovein</a></h3> <h4> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.lovein.com/Matthew-Lovein.htm">Matt</a></h4> <img SRC="3footshoe.jpg" BORDER=0 height=292 width=432>3 Foot Shoe private collection, 36x29x12" <br><img SRC="spikey.jpg" BORDER=0 height=378 width=504> Spikey 26x17x10.5" metal work <br><img SRC="ShoeVessel.jpg" BORDER=0 height=449 width=201> Stepping&nbsp; into the Millennium, 48" vase&nbsp;<img SRC="Bootbox.jpg" BORDER=0 height=642 width=216> Boot safe <p><img SRC="Lacy.jpg" BORDER=0 height=454 width=400> Lacy, metal wall sculpture&nbsp;<img SRC="Shoestand.jpg" BORDER=0 height=599 width=216> Shoe Stand&nbsp;<img SRC="LadiesofEgypt.jpg" BORDER=0 height=576 width=432> <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Ladies of Egypt , Ceramic and metal, 16x20x10"&nbsp; <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h4> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.lovein.com/Mary-Lovein.htm">Mary</a></h4> <img SRC="Ashoe.jpg" BORDER=0 height=523 width=400> American Shoes,&nbsp; giclee on canvas <br><img SRC="MaryLovein-icecream.jpg" height=314 width=288> "Ice Cream Heels", Limited edition print<img SRC="Chinadolls.jpg" BORDER=0 height=451 width=576> Proposal, giclee on canvas <br><img SRC="Lookdowncolor.jpg" BORDER=0 height=324 width=432> Look Down in Color, monotype <br><img SRC="Reflection1.jpg" BORDER=0 height=484 width=360>Reflection , giclee <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.lovein.com/Jeffsart.htm">Jeff Yojeff Mercer</a></h3> <img SRC="rednglass.jpg" height=513 width=687> <p><img SRC="redglassshoe.jpg" height=356 width=504> Red glass shoe <p><img SRC="blueglass.jpg" height=356 width=504> Blue glass shoe <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> Annie Ball</h3> <p><br><img SRC="silkshoebox.jpg" BORDER=0 height=310 width=360> Silk covered tea box <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> Patty Van Asperen</h3> <img SRC="DescendingHeels.jpg" BORDER=0 height=426 width=360>&nbsp; Blue Descending Heels, fused glass bowl <br><img SRC="Glassslipper.jpg" BORDER=0 height=259 width=349> Glass slipper <br><img SRC="Davine.jpg" BORDER=0 height=211 width=402> Da Vine, glass <br><img SRC="Petroheel.jpg" BORDER=0 height=270 width=360> Petroglyph high heel, rock <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> Darrell Hill</h3> <img SRC="boot.jpg" BORDER=0 height=445 width=216>&nbsp; Sunset Boot, 3D with oil paint&nbsp; <hr WIDTH="100%"><a target="_blank" href="http://www.lovein.com/holualoagalleryblue.htm">Melba Boyd</a> <br><img SRC="MBBluemanshoe.jpg" BORDER=0 height=183 width=216> Blue Man Shoe <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> Yayoi Kusama (b. 1929)</h3> <img SRC="silvershoes.jpg" height=198 width=300>Silver Shoes (1976-77)<img SRC="silvershoe.jpg" height=170 width=170><img SRC="kusama.jpg" height=162 width=230> <br><img SRC="kusa10.jpg" BORDER=0 height=138 width=166><img SRC="kusa8.jpg" BORDER=0 height=139 width=165><img SRC="kusa33.jpg" BORDER=0 height=139 width=170>1999 <br><img SRC="kusamakutu2.jpg" height=342 width=567>2002 <p>Yayoi Kusama was born 22 March 1929, in Japan. Kusama's paintings, collages, sculptures, and environmental works all share an obsession with repetition, pattern, and accumulation. Hoptman writes that "Kusama's interest in pattern began with hallucinations she experienced as a young girl--visions of nets, dots, and flowers that covered everything she saw. Gripped by the idea of 'obliterating the world,' she began covering larger and larger areas of canvas with patterns." Her organically abstract paintings of one or two colors (the Infinity Netsseries), which she began upon arriving in New York, garnered comparisons to the work of Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, and Barnett Newman. Starting in 1967 she became involved in performance-based work, and by the late '60s the happenings in which she participated were receiving much more attention in the popular press than in the art magazines that had previously reviewed her work. In the early '70s Kusama traveled between Japan and the United States several times, and she eventually remained in Japan. During the mid '70s Kusama was hospitalized for psychological problems, and in 1977 she took up long-term residence at the Seiwa Hospital in Tokyo, where she set up a studio and has continued her work as an artist. <br> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> Diane McLean</h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.stir.ac.uk/artcol/shoe.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.stir.ac.uk/artcol/GalleryTour.html&h=216&w=330&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dshoe%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN"><img SRC="shoe_lg.jpg" BORDER=0 height=268 width=410></a>Shoe (Roman sandal), University of Stirling, Scotland <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> Lobbs of London</h3> <img SRC="Lobb.JPG" height=146 width=194><img SRC="LobbJubileShoe.JPG" height=143 width=269> Lobb's of London: Jubilee Shoe, 2002 <br><img SRC="IndianPrincess.JPG" height=372 width=206> Boots made for an Indian Princess in Arkansas and presented to Mr. Eric Lobb in 1948. <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> Roman Shoes</h3> <img SRC="Southfleet.JPG" height=225 width=340> <br>Adult woman's shoes found at archaelogical excavation at Southfleet (Springhead), Kent in 1801. Originally purple with a pale lining visible through the openwork and gilded metal thread embellishing the pattern (British Museum, 2nd-3rd Century AD) <p><img SRC="Roman.JPG" height=191 width=402> <br>Roman child's leather hobnailed sandal (<i>caliga</i>) with decorative openwork upper (Bank of England/British Museum) <p><img SRC="RomanShoe.JPG" height=156 width=293> <br>Light leather Roman shoe known as a <i>carbatina</i> (British Museum) <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> Chinese Paper Shoes</h3> <img SRC="PaperShoes.JPG" height=417 width=279><img SRC="PaperShoesText.JPG" height=419 width=337> <p> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> High-heeled three-wheeler</h3> <img SRC="car.jpg" height=480 width=640> <br> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.noorderlicht.com/eng/fest97/eden/veldhoen/">Venus Veldhoen</a> (b. 1968)</h3> <img SRC="ph2.jpg" ALT="photo" BORDER=0 height=250 width=246><img SRC="ph4.jpg" ALT="photo" BORDER=0 height=250 width=242> Holy Feet <p>Veldhoen took the photographs of the feet while travelling in India in 1996. Feet are sacred in India and they also carry great importance for her: <i>Feet take you everywhere in life, they are the number one means of transport. As the naked foot is in direct contact with the earth, I believe it passes on personal strength and aura to the trodden ground.</i> <br> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <br>&nbsp; <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.katmekat.com/studiof/">Tsubasa</a></h3> <img SRC="shoetube.jpg" BORDER=0 height=462 width=300><img SRC="rider.jpg" BORDER=0 height=357 width=400> <br><img SRC="sand.jpg" BORDER=0 height=280 width=450><img SRC="chocolate.jpg" BORDER=0 height=329 width=450> <br><img SRC="hangar.jpg" BORDER=0 height=289 width=450><img SRC="legs.jpg" BORDER=0 height=277 width=400> <br><img SRC="up.jpg" BORDER=0 height=632 width=450><img SRC="hung.jpg" BORDER=0 height=845 width=400> <br><img SRC="aqua.jpg" BORDER=0 height=558 width=450><img SRC="flatline.jpg" BORDER=0 height=558 width=500> <br><img SRC="erradic.jpg" BORDER=0 height=559 width=500><img SRC="brown.jpg" BORDER=0 height=575 width=450><img SRC="jewel.jpg" BORDER=0 height=473 width=500><img SRC="leg3.jpg" BORDER=0 height=573 width=400><img SRC="tripod.jpg" BORDER=0 height=453 width=500><img SRC="yellow.jpg" BORDER=0 height=529 width=450> <br><img SRC="dragon.jpg" BORDER=0 height=521 width=400><img SRC="gnb.jpg" BORDER=0 height=568 width=450> <p><img SRC="57.jpg" BORDER=0 height=469 width=500><img SRC="stock.jpg" BORDER=0 height=411 width=300><img SRC="stairs.jpg" BORDER=0 height=419 width=500><img SRC="skirt.jpg" BORDER=0 height=509 width=400> <p><img SRC="yard.jpg" BORDER=0 height=393 width=450><img SRC="tv.jpg" BORDER=0 height=502 width=354> <br><img SRC="dog.jpg" BORDER=0 height=568 width=450><img SRC="plat.jpg" BORDER=0 height=435 width=309> <br><img SRC="sitter.jpg" BORDER=0 height=519 width=450><img SRC="wires.jpg" BORDER=0 height=544 width=320> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.pierresilber.com/">Pierre Silber</a></h3> <img SRC="ballet.jpg" ALT="Extreme high heel ballet fetish shoes" BORDER=0 height=653 width=500> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1173911.stm">Imelda Marcos</a></h3> <img SRC="_1173911_wideap300.jpg" ALT="Imelda Marcos with her shoes" BORDER=0 height=180 width=315><img SRC="_1173911_widap150.jpg" ALT="Imelda Marcos" BORDER=0 height=190 width=150><img SRC="_1173911_ap150.jpg" ALT="Imelda Marcos" BORDER=0 height=190 width=150> <p>The world's best-known shoe collector, former Philippine First Lady Imelda Marcos, opened a museum in 2001, in which most of the exhibits are her own footwear. <p>The Footwear Museum in Barangay San Roque, <a target="_blank" href="http://www.marikina.com.ph/">Marikina City</a>, Manila (a district known as the shoe capital of the Philippines) contains hundreds of pairs of shoes, many of them found in the presidential palace when Imelda and her husband, President Ferdinand Marcos, fled to Hawaii in 1986. <p><img SRC="_1000140_shoe150.jpg" ALT="Imelda and shoe phone" BORDER=0 height=180 width=150 align=RIGHT>"This museum is making a subject of notoriety into an object of beauty," Mrs Marcos told reporters. <p>The museum management hopes it will help attract tourism to Marikina, "They went into my closets looking for skeletons, but thank God, all they found were shoes, beautiful shoes," a smiling Mrs Marcos said, wearing a pair of locally made silver shoes for the day. <p>"More than anything, this museum will symbolise the spirit and culture of the Filipino people. <p>"Filipinos don't wallow in what is miserable and ugly. They recycle the bad into things of beauty," she said. <p>The exhibits include shoes made by such world-famous names as Ferragamo, Givenchy, Chanel and Christian Dior, all size eight-and-a-half. The museum also houses traditional shoes from different countries, as well as footwear of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, former Presidents Ferdinand Marcos and Fidel Ramos, some senators and athletes. <p>During her time as first lady, Mrs Marcos was famed for travelling the world to buy new shoes at a time when millions of Filipinos were living in extreme poverty.&nbsp; She reportedly owned over 3000 pairs of shoes when she was forced to flee the presidential estate. President Marcos' successor, Corazon Aquino, ordered many of Mrs Marcos' shoes to be put on display as a demonstration of her extravagance. <p>While Ferdinand Marcos died in exile, neverseeing his country again after his fall from grace in a popular uprising, his widow has reintegrated herself into Philippines life. She has twice run for president and analysts say she may run for mayor of Manila next May. <p>Some 200,000 people work in the Marikina district making shoes, with roads carrying names such as Sandal Street and Slipper Street. <p><i>I did not have three thousand pair of shoes. I had one thousand and sixty.</i> <p><i>Everybody kept their shoes there. The maids...everybody.</i> <p><i>Our opponent (Cory Aquino) does not put on any make up. She does not have her fingernails manicured. You know gays. They are for beauty. Filipinos who like beauty, love, and God are for Marcos.</i> <p><i>I get my fingers in all our pies. Before you know it, your little fingers including all your toes are in all the pies.</i> <br><i>Shoes in Museums</i> <h4> <a target="_blank" href="http://arttech.about.com/library/bl_shoe_design_museums.htm">Other shoe museums</a></h4> In 1998 the Museum of London's exhibit, Sole City: London Shoes From the 1st to the 21st Century, featured contemporary <br>British shoe designers and explored the designers' penchant for offshore production. Sogetsu Ikebana School's 1999 Sogetsu Hall exhibition, The Art of The Shoe, paid tribute to the life and works of Salvatore Ferragamo. The shoes, exhibited amidst green bamboo structures, were designed from 1927 to 1960, the year of his death. <p>Museums like France's International Shoe Museum (Le Mus&eacute;e International de la Chaussure) and Offenbach's German Shoe Museum (Deutsches Ledermuseum / Schuhmuseum) have helped preserve centuries of shoe design history. Besides legacy shoes, the German Shoe Museum features contemporary footwear debuted at the International Shoe Fair, a trade event in D&uuml;sseldorf. <p>In addition to European and non-European shoe exhibits, 20th century artists like G&uuml;nther Uecker, Allen Jones, Caroline Bahr, Gisela Cardaun and Gaza Bowen, who see the shoe as an art form, are also featured. The International Shoe Museum showcases 8,000 rare and original items from around the world, as well as exhibits by contemporary designers. <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.batashoemuseum.ca/non.html"><img SRC="bata.gif" height=162 width=163 align=LEFT></a><a target="_blank" href="http://www.batashoemuseum.ca/non.html">Toronto's Bata Shoe Museum'</a>s exhibits, housed in a angular shoe box design by architect Raymond Moriyama, include shoes of the ordinary and the renowned. Virtually step inside Picasso's zebra-striped boots or explore a collection of ethnological, Western, Indian, circumpolar and other historical artifacts, from nearly every culture in the world. <p><img SRC="mainimage.jpg" BORDER=0 height=525 width=600> <p>San Francisco's M.H.de Young Memorial Museum featured footwear in their 1996 exhibit: If The Shoe Fits. In 1998, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts exhibit, A Grand Design: The Art of the Victoria and Albert Museum, showcased 2,000 years of art from 26 countries, including shoes and boots by Mary Quant, Vivienne Westwood, Vegetarian and others. <p>Over 150 athletic shoes were the star attraction in the 2000 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) exhibition, Design Afoot: Athletic Shoes 1995 - 2000. This exhibit featured designs by Suki Saki, Lulu Longtime and other artists who have designed shoe for Adidas, Converse, Nike, Oakley, Polo and Prada while exploring the blurred boundary between function and fashion. <h4> <b>What will future footwear look like?</b></h4> <font size=+0>Will they follow the predictions of Madison Avenue's Committee for Colour and Trends, who felt that after Helmut Lang's minimalist shoe designs, like those of&nbsp; Helmut Lang, designers would turn to modernism... and then what?&nbsp; Will future shoes be takeoffs on the Space Racer and Relax-O-Shoe?&nbsp; Will shoes be designed by artist/inventors, custom-designed by man and computer or will they be return to being handmade? <hr WIDTH="100%"></font><a target="_blank" href="http://www.opinionjournal.com/taste/?id=110003324">Expressive Soles: Why Iraqis used shoes to shoo Saddam</a> <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I was in a bar (as one frequently is) at the end of a day's labors. There were televisions lit up, one on <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the left, another on the right, with pictures from statue-strewn Baghdad streets. And just then the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; barmaid across from me, clearly thirsting as much for information on another culture as I was for a <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Scotch, asked aloud, and quizzically: "What's with the shoes?!" <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; How can one not have noticed, and wondered about, the shoes? <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In recent days we've seen Baghdadis, Basrans, Kirkukis, Karbalites, Dearbornis--Iraqis of all <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; sorts--assaulting every fallen statue of Saddam Hussein, every unseated portrait of the tyrant, with <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; their footwear. We've seen leather shoes, plastic sandals, rubber flip-flops, even (or was this an <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; illusion?) some Nikes, long-laced and incongruous. Everything but stiletto heels, which aren't, if I may <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; be permitted a rare generalization, big in the Arab world, at least not in public. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; These images--these flailings of sole against statuary--have been among the most charming of any to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; emerge from Freed Iraq, and arguably the most intriguing to Western viewers. One can comprehend <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the toppling of the totemic figures in town squares, and one has, in fact, seen this sort of thing <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; before: in Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Romania and other places at the end of the Cold War. But one <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; never saw men in Vilnius, Cracow, Minsk or Timisoara flay their bronze or plaster Lenins and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Ceaucescus with their shoes. There may have been some kicking, but no one in the East Bloc ever <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; discalced himself to hand-deliver a thrashing to a crippled icon. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; So what is it with the shoes in Iraq? <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; As anyone who has been to the Middle East (or even to countries like India) knows, the foot and shoe <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; are imbued with considerable significance. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The foot occupies the lowest rung in the bodily hierarchy and the shoe, in addition to being something <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; in which the foot is placed, is in constant contact with dirt, soil and worse. The sole of the shoe is the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; most unclean part of an unclean object. In northern India, where I grew up, the exhortation "Joot&eacute; <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; maro!" ("Hit him with shoes!") was invoked when one sought to administer the most demeaning <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; punishment. (Another footwear tidbit: The effigies of unpopular politicians in India are regularly <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; garlanded with shoes and paraded down the streets.) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the Muslim world, according to Hume Horan, a former U.S. ambassador to Saudi Arabia, "to have the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; sole of the shoe directed toward one is pretty much the equivalent of someone in our culture giving <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; you the finger." Matthew Gordon, a historian of Islam, says that since one takes one's shoes off before <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; entering a mosque--as a way of maintaining the purity of the place of worship--"the use of a shoe as <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; something to hit you with is an inversion, directing impurity and pollution at the object of the beating." <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The fact that the shoe-as-anathema idea stretches across the Arab world into India suggests that <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the cultural aversions (and the attendant insults) predate Islam and may have had their origins in a <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; poorly understood--but basically correct--connection between dirt (i.e., pollution) and footwear. In <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; societies where levels of public hygiene are low (e.g., much of the Middle East and the Indian <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Subcontinent), it is still commonplace to remove one's shoes before entering a private home, and not <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; just places of worship. Which begs the question, of course, of why shoes weren't so removed in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; medieval Europe, whose streets were just as dung-flecked, or are not so removed in present-day, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; non-Muslim Africa. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; But the fact remains that Iraqis today are deriving sumptuous pleasure--part ritual, part <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; catharsis--from their chance to hit Saddam with the soles of their shoes. In this, they are not merely <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; degrading him but also exacting retribution for bastinadoes suffered in the past. There probably isn't a <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; single non-Baath-Party Iraqi who wasn't personally beaten or knocked about by the authorities--or <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; who doesn't know someone so ill-used. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Ultimately, there could also be a practical explanation for "the shoes." It may well be that in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; impoverished Iraq, nobody except those in the military could afford decent footwear. So kick the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; bronze head too hard and you hurt your own foot. Better, and safer, to take the shoe off and go <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; thwack, thwack, thwack, thwack. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Mr. Varadarajan is editorial features editor of The Wall Street Journal.&nbsp; <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> Concealed shoes<img SRC="concealedshoes.jpg" ALT="Concealed shoes from Pershore, Worcs." height=179 width=363 align=RIGHT></h3> Steve Harber from Suffolk lives near the village church at Ilketshall St Lawrence near Halesworth, and wanted to have explained a curious mark on the tower roof. He wrote: 'The tower has a flat roof with lead covering. Engraved in the lead are a number of old marks, some of them appear to be drawn around the engraver's boot. A distinctive common mark within the foot-shaped marks is a body tied in a sack on gallows. The tower is never visited and the existence of the marks is not well known. I often wondered why these are there and who would have put them there.' <p>The marks on the church tower are engraved into the lead roof. There are several shoes. Most are dated - from the sixteenth century to the early twentieth - and they have various engraved marks inside them including a crown, a swastika and a hanged man. Local archaeologist Mike Hardy pointed out that the shoes were different shapes - some with pointed toes, some square and some round. <p>The shoe marks on the church roof are not hidden shoes. They are drawn around the outside of a shoe - the shape of the shoe helps with dating if no date is inscribed. The marks, too, are symbols. The crown meant authority, and the swastika was a benign symbol until the twentieth century (it gets its name from the Sanskrit word <i>svastika</i>, meaning well-being and good fortune). The hanged man also represented a search for spiritual well-being. There is little in the way of contemporary accounts about this apparently very common practice, but it was a secretive custom associated with folk magic. <p>Sue Constable of Northampton Museum explained that concealing shoes is a well-known folk custom and is so common throughout the country that the Museum has set up a Concealed Shoes Index to record all the occurrences. The custom would appear to be a charm to ward off malevolent spirits who might enter buildings, particularly homes, at inaccessible places - chimneys are especially common hiding places. The Museum receives an average of one find a month, but Sue Constable says that hundreds of finds every year may well be simply thrown out by builders. In Britain as many as 50 date from before 1600 and the numbers rise to more than 500 in the nineteenth century, and then the finds tail off. Shoes are often found hidden in chimneys, either on a ledge or in specially built cavities behind the hearth into which items could be placed from above. Sometimes they were hidden under bedroom floors. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The earliest reference to the use of shoes as some kind of spirit trap comes from the 14th century.&nbsp; It <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; regards one of England s unofficial saints, John Schorn from Buckinghamshire, who was rector of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; North Marston 1290-1314.&nbsp; His claim to fame is that he is reputed to have performed the remarkable <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; feat of casting the devil into a boot.&nbsp; The oldest concealed shoes date back to roughly the same time <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; as Schorn but there are very few examples from that period - he may have begun the tradition, or it <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; may simply be that his legend records a pre-existing practice. <p>Over 1200 examples recorded so far.&nbsp; Many people who have discovered shoes in buildings feel very strongly about not removing or even discussing them.&nbsp; It is important, therefore, to treat individual feelings about these items sensitively. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 26.2% of shoes are found in chimneys, usually on a ledge within the chimney.&nbsp; Shoes can be discovered in large groups and sometimes with <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; other artifacts.&nbsp; 11.3% are pairs of shoes - most are odd.&nbsp; 40% of shoes belonged to children. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The shoe was not a cheap item, it may have been one of the most expensive purchases a family had <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; to make.&nbsp; Therefore shoes were repaired as much as possible before being discarded.&nbsp; Clearly, by the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; time the shoe was discarded it provided a unique record of the wearers individual foot.&nbsp; Here we may <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; have a similar principal to the witch-bottle, fooling the witch/spirit that the person is there in the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; chimney.&nbsp; It was probably hoped the shoe would trap the spirit or act as a decoy of some sort.&nbsp; The <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; location of shoes, often either within or near to the hearth, does suggest some kind of protective <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; function. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; There are some specific points to record in the case of shoes in addition to the general advice given <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; on the 'how you can help page'.&nbsp; The location of the find in relation to north in the building should be <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; recorded, along with how many lace holes they have, whether (in your opinion) it was a man's, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; woman's, boy's, girl's, child's shoe and the date of the find also.&nbsp; As with all finds, it is important to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; attempt to ascertain the date of the building. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Garments have also been found concealed in buildings and may have a similar significance in that <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; they are 'valuable' rubbish.&nbsp; They too have highly important personal significance and may be a <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; similar practice to that of concealed shoes.&nbsp; Some research and conservation on these finds has been <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; undertaken at the Textile Conservation Centre in Winchester. <p>Shoes were thought to have a special quality. They were repaired and repaired until they became very individual. They came to be thought of as the item of clothing which most clearly contained the soul of the individual. There are suggestions that they were a fertility symbol. In the nursery rhyme, the old woman who lived in a shoe had so many children she didn't know what to do. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; June Swann was the pioneer of research into concealed shoes with an article in 1969 for the Journal <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of Northampton Museum and Art Gallery - this&nbsp; museum holds a very large collection of concealed shoes. <p><b>Further reading</b> <br>Emily Brooks, 'Watch Your Step' (The National Trust Magazine, no.91, Autumn 2000) <br>Timothy Easton, 'Spiritual Middens' in <i>Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World</i>, vol1, (Cambridge University Press, 1997) <br>Ralph Merrifield, <i>The Archaeology of Ritual and Magic</i> (Batsford, 1988) <br>Iona Opie and Moira Tatem, editors, <i>A Dictionary of Superstitions</i> (Oxford Paperbacks, 1992) <br>David Pickering, <i>Cassell Dictionary of Folklore</i> (Cassel Reference, 1999) <br>Jacqueline Simpson and Steve Roud, <i>A Dictionary of English Folklore</i> (OUP, 2001) <br>June Swann, 'Shoes concealed in buildings' (Journal of the Costume Society no.30, 1996, pp.56-99) <br>Cameron, Pitt, Swann and Volken,  Hidden Shoes and Concealed Beliefs , Archaeological Leather Group Newsletter, issue 7, Feb 1998. <br> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <br>&nbsp; <table BORDER CELLPADDING=20 WIDTH="600" BGCOLOR="#F5F5DC" > <caption>&nbsp;</caption> <tr> <td COLSPAN="3"><font face="arial,helvetica"><font size=+3><a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/Paris/Chateau/6110/shoe.htm">Petrus Camper (1722-1789) on the Shoe</a></font></font> <p><font face="arial,helvetica">Petrus Camper, "On the Best Form of Shoe," translated from Dutch into English by James Dowie, <i>The Foot and Its Covering</i> (London: Hardwicke, 1861): xxvii-44.</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td COLSPAN="2">Jean-Jacques Rousseau's commentary about native's view of <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/notes4.htm#shoes">European shoes</a>, <i>A Discourse Upon The Origin and Foundation of the Inequality Among Mankind</i> 1761 anonymously-translated English publication preserved all of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's original footnotes.</td> <td ALIGN=CENTER><a href="/art/shoeDesign.doc">Handout</a></td> </tr> <tr> <td COLSPAN="3"><img SRC="1shoe.gif" > <br><b>Plate I, Fig. 1.</b> The foot is divided into three parts, of which the principal, <i>N, E,</i> is called the Tarsus; <i>E, D,</i> the Metatarsus; and <i>D, A,</i> the Toes.&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td COLSPAN="3"><img SRC="2shoe.gif" > <br><b>Plate I, Fig. 2.</b> The change which takes place in the foot when we walk is of great importance: the great toe, <i>A, K</i>, then rests upon the ground; the metatarsus, or instep, rises from <i>b</i> to <i>B</i>; and the line <i>d, c,</i> lengthens and extends to <i>B</i>, increasing the interval <i>c, B,</i> which is in this figure 1/4 of an inch French measure, and, in consequence, a whole inch in nature. <br>The soles of our shoes and boots, which are generally made of the strongest leather, become, in consequence of this elongation of the foot, too short in proportion. The shoe then pinches the heel, and produces still worse effects upon all the toes, especially the great toe; for as the sole cannot yield from <i>c</i> to <i>B, A</i> yields towards <i>c,</i> and the great toe is bent as at <i>f,</i> forming the <font color="#0000FF">[blue] angle <i>e, f, D,</i></font> together with the rest of the toes. Thus are produced corns upon the joints, and other painful deformities of the feet.&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td COLSPAN="3"><img SRC="heels.gif" > <br><b>Plate I, Fig. 3.</b> The astragalus, <i>R, M, I,</i> which supports at <i>R</i> the whole weight of the body, is thus sustained by two <font color="#FF0000">[red] oblique lines, <i>R, B, R, A</i></font>. <br>The great toe becomes bent towards <i>P</i>, and the higher the heels, the greater will be the distortion, the centre of gravity, <i>R</i>, acting more and more in the line <i>R, a</i>; and the higher the heel and the smaller the sole, the greater becomes the risk of falls and sprains.</td> </tr> <tr> <td COLSPAN="3"><img SRC="6shoe.gif" > <br><b>Plate II, Fig. 6.</b> As the leg rests on the foot, and the centre of gravity acts in a line perpendicularly, a line designated by Borelli <i><font color="#006400">linea propensionis</font></i>, and represented by <i><font color="#006400">R, S,</font></i> in Figs. 3 and 6, it follows that this line ought always to be observed.&nbsp; <br>The best position for the buckle or fastening of a shoe is, therefore, directly over the top of the instep, neither too high nor too low, exactly over the spot where the triangular ligament connects the tendons of the extensors of the toes with the bones of the tarsus and metatarsus, at <i><font color="#0000FF">O, N,</font></i>.</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img SRC="4shoe.gif" > <br><b>Plate I, Fig. 4.</b> It is more than probable that in those persons whose feet have not been distorted by the use of high heels, the heel-bone receives the anterior part of the astragalus (<i>H</i>) upon the eminence <i>M, L,</i> which is then divided into two small sinuses (<i>E</i> and <i>F</i>, Fig. 4), separated by a space, <i>K.</i></td> <td VALIGN=TOP ROWSPAN="3"><b>Plate II, Fig. 8.</b> If we consider the sole of the foot (Fig. 8), we shall see that the diagonal line of this supposed lozenge does not pass through its centre, but that the exterior portion, <i>A, B, D, M,</i> Fig. 8, considerably exceeds the interior, <i>A, B, E, N.</i> <br>The sole of the foot is generally of the form represented in Fig. 8; the part comprising the toes, <i>E, D, B,</i> in <i>F, E,</i> occupying about one-third of the whole length of the foot. <br>The toes are naturally all parallel to the diameter <i>A, B,</i> as I have represented them in Fig. 8, which is the outline of a foot that has not been distorted by ill-made shoes. <br>There is an old and most unreasonable custom of making the shoes for both feet alike, from one and the same last, with the additional absurdity of giving the sole a certain arbitrary form, as at <i>A, O, D, S, B, R, E, N,</i> Fig. 8.&nbsp;</td> <td VALIGN=TOP ROWSPAN="3"> <table BORDER=0 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=0 > <caption><TBODY> <br></TBODY></caption> <tr> <td><i><font face="arial,helvetica"><font size=+4>Has anything really changed since Camper's day....?!</font></font></i> <br><img SRC="8shoe.gif" valign="top" align=RIGHT></td> </tr> <tr> <td>The <font color="#FF0000">[red] sole, <i>A, N, E, R, B, S, D, O,</i> Fig.8,</font> copied from the latest Parisian pattern, was intended for the <font color="#0000FF">[blue] sole of the foot, <i>A, I, Z, K, M, A,</i> Fig. 8</font>!!</td> </tr> </table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td><img SRC="5shoe.gif" > <br><b>Plate I, Fig. 5.</b> Very frequently, however, we find but one sinus, as at <i>E, F,</i> Fig. 5. <br>It appears to me very probable, then, that these sinuses become united from the pressure to which they are subjected by high heels, causing the obliteration of the division <i>K</i>.</td> </tr> <tr> <td><img SRC="7shoe.gif" > <br><b>Plate II, Fig. 7.</b></td> </tr> <tr> <td COLSPAN="3"><img SRC="9shoe.gif" > <br><b>Plate II, Fig. 9.</b> The erect position being a necessary prelude to walking progression, it may be well, in idscussing this subject, to look to what the celebrated Borelli has left us in his excellent work on the Animal Motions. Our principal business being to explain the manner in which we raise our fett from the ground in walking, we may turn to Fig. 9, where <i>A, C, B</i> represents the length of the leg and foot, turning upon the hipjoint at <i>A</i>. <i>C</i> indicates the knee. Let us imagine that a man standing on his right foot begins to walk along the street, <i>G, F,</i> it is certain that if there should be a stone, <i>E, B,</i> at <i>B,</i> he will strike his foot against it; but if the heel of the shoe should be of the height <i>E, B,</i> the centre of movement at the hip being thus raised to <i>D,</i> he will avoid it, because the foot will pass from <i>H</i> to <i>I</i>.&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td COLSPAN="3"><img SRC="shoeshop.jpg" ALT="18th-century shoeshop in Diderot's Encyclopedia" height=284 width=600></td> </tr> <tr> <td ALIGN=CENTER COLSPAN="2"><a target="_blank" href="http://www.shoeme.com/history.htm">www.shoeme.com/history.htm</a> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.shoesonthenet.com/terms.html">www.shoesonthenet.com/terms.html</a> <p><i><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fashion-era.com/beauty_is_shape.htm">Beauty is Shape</a></i> by Pauline Weston Thomas for Fashion-Era.com <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.uihealthcare.com/depts/medmuseum/wallexhibits/body/alterations/clothing.html">The Cultural Body Alterations</a> University of Iowa Medical Museum <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.bata.com/just_fun/foot_shoecare/anatomy.htm">www.bata.com/just_fun/foot_shoecare/anatomy.htm</a> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.savingfeet.com/Home/FootProblems/Foot_Anatomy.html">www.savingfeet.com/Home/FootProblems/Foot_Anatomy.html</a> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nefca.ca/find-ft-nurse/ftanatomy.asp">www.nefca.ca/find-ft-nurse/ftanatomy.asp</a></td> <td><img SRC="last.jpg" ALT="last" height=408 width=224> <br>Advertisement, 1961. (I. Miller Shoes) <br>Bernard Rudofsky, <i>The Unfashionable Human Body</i> (Garden City, New York: Doubleday &amp; Company, Inc., 1971): 116.</td> </tr> <tr> <td COLSPAN="2"><img SRC="centered.jpg" ALT="Bernard Pfriem" height=376 width=316></td> <td>"The foot that fits the shoe: According to the gospel of our shoemakers, the big toe ought to be in the place of the third one. Hence shoes for symmetrical feet are not just a fashion but an unwritten law. To drive home the immensity of this abomination, Bernard Pfriem, portraitist of the human body par excellence, has obliged the author by interpreting the shoe designers' unfulfilled dream." 3/28/71 <br>Bernard Rudofsky, <i>The Unfashionable Human Body</i> (Garden City, New York: Doubleday &amp; Company, Inc., 1971): 113.</td> </tr> <tr> <td ALIGN=CENTER COLSPAN="3"><font face="arial,helvetica"><font size=-2>[ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/buffon/1varieties.htm">G. de Buffon (1707-1788)</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/camper1.htm">Petrus Camper (1722-1789)</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/daubenton.htm">L.-J.-M. Daubenton (1716-1800)</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/europeconcepts.htm">Enlightenment Anthropology</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/orang.htm">Orang-Utang Graphics</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/europeconceptsterms.htm">18th-Century Concepts</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/NewFrance.htm">17th-Century New France</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/buffon/index.htm">Translations</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/Jenison.htm">N. B. Jenison (1876-1960)</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/index.htm">Dr. Meijer's R&eacute;sum&eacute;</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/papers.htm">Conference Papers</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/publications.htm">Publications</a> ]</font></font> <br><font face="arial,helvetica"><font size=-2>[ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/rodopi.htm">Dr. Meijer's Book</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.rodopi.nl/senj.asp?BookId=SHILC+4">Rodopi</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/9042004347/qid=971630761/002-7075014-9612807">Amazon.com</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/meijer.pdf">PDF Order Form</a> ]&nbsp;</font></font> <br><font face="arial,helvetica"><font size=-2>[ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/review1.htm">1st Review</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/review2.htm">2nd Review</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/review3.htm">3rd Review</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/review4.htm">4th Review</a> ]&nbsp;</font></font> <br><font face="arial,helvetica"><font size=-2>[ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/CV.htm">Index</a> ] [ <a target="_blank" href="http://www.geocities.com/paris/chateau/6110/sitemap.htm">Sitemap</a> ]&nbsp;</font></font> <br><font face="arial,helvetica"><font size=-2>Miriam Claude Meijer, Ph.D.&nbsp;</font></font></td> </tr> </table> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.i18nguy.com/l10n/shoes.html">International Shoe Sizes</a></h3> <table BORDER=2 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=4 > <caption> <h4> Adult Mens and Womens Shoe Size Conversion Table</h4> </caption> <tr style="background-color:#FFFFCC" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#FFFFCC'"> <th>Europe</th> <td class="size">35</td> <td class="sizex">35&frac12;</td> <td class="size">36</td> <td class="sizex">37</td> <td class="size">37&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">38</td> <td class="size">38&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">39</td> <td class="size">40</td> <td class="sizex">41</td> <td class="size">42</td> <td class="sizex">43</td> <td class="size">44</td> <td class="sizex">45</td> <td class="size">46&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">48&frac12;</td> <th>Europe</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#FFCCFF" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#FFCCFF'"> <th>Japan Men</th> <td class="size">21.5</td> <td class="sizex">22</td> <td class="size">22.5</td> <td class="sizex">23</td> <td class="size">23.5</td> <td class="sizex">24</td> <td class="size">24.5</td> <td class="sizex">25</td> <td class="size">25.5</td> <td class="sizex">26</td> <td class="size">26.5</td> <td class="sizex">27.5</td> <td class="size">28.5</td> <td class="sizex">29.5</td> <td class="size">30.5</td> <td class="sizex">31.5</td> <th>Japan Men</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#FFFFFF" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#FFFFFF'"> <th>Japan Ladies</th> <td class="sizex">21</td> <td class="size">21.5</td> <td class="sizex">22</td> <td class="size">22.5</td> <td class="sizex">23</td> <td class="size">23.5</td> <td class="sizex">24</td> <td class="size">24.5</td> <td class="sizex">25</td> <td class="size">25.5</td> <td class="sizex">26</td> <td class="size">27</td> <td class="sizex">28</td> <td class="size">29</td> <td class="sizex">30</td> <td class="size">31</td> <th>Japan Ladies</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#CCCCFF" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#CCCCFF'"> <th>Mexico</th> <td class="size">&nbsp;</td> <td class="sizex">&nbsp;</td> <td class="size">&nbsp;</td> <td class="sizex">&nbsp;</td> <td class="size">&nbsp;</td> <td class="sizex">4.5</td> <td class="size">5</td> <td class="sizex">5.5</td> <td class="size">6</td> <td class="sizex">6.5</td> <td class="size">7</td> <td class="sizex">7.5</td> <td class="size">9</td> <td class="sizex">10</td> <td class="size">11</td> <td class="sizex">12.5</td> <th>Mexico</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#CCFFFF" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#CCFFFF'"> <th>Australia &amp; U.K. Men</th> <td class="size">3</td> <td class="sizex">3&frac12;</td> <td class="size">4</td> <td class="sizex">4&frac12;</td> <td class="size">5</td> <td class="sizex">5&frac12;</td> <td class="size">6</td> <td class="sizex">6&frac12;</td> <td class="size">7</td> <td class="sizex">7&frac12;</td> <td class="size">8</td> <td class="sizex">8&frac12;</td> <td class="size">10</td> <td class="sizex">11</td> <td class="size">12</td> <td class="sizex">13&frac12;</td> <th>Australia &amp; U.K. Men</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#FFFFFF" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#FFFFFF'"> <th>U.K. Women</th> <td class="size">2&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">3</td> <td class="size">3&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">4</td> <td class="size">4&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">5</td> <td class="size">5&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">6</td> <td class="size">6&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">7</td> <td class="size">7&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">8&frac12;</td> <td class="size">9&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">10&frac12;</td> <td class="size">11&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">13</td> <th>U.K. Women</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#CCCCCC" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#CCCCCC'"> <th>Australia Women</th> <td class="size">3&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">4</td> <td class="size">4&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">5</td> <td class="size">5&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">6</td> <td class="size">6&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">7</td> <td class="size">7&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">8</td> <td class="size">8&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">9&frac12;</td> <td class="size">10&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">11&frac12;</td> <td class="size">12&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">14</td> <th>Australia Women</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#CCCCFF" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#CCCCFF'"> <th>U.S. &amp; Canada Men</th> <td class="size">3&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">4</td> <td class="size">4&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">5</td> <td class="size">5&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">6</td> <td class="size">6&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">7</td> <td class="size">7&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">8</td> <td class="size">8&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">9</td> <td class="size">10&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">11&frac12;</td> <td class="size">12&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">14</td> <th>U.S. &amp; Canada Men</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#CCFFCC" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#CCFFCC'"> <th>U.S. &amp; Canada Women</th> <td class="size">5</td> <td class="sizex">5&frac12;</td> <td class="size">6</td> <td class="sizex">6&frac12;</td> <td class="size">7</td> <td class="sizex">7&frac12;</td> <td class="size">8</td> <td class="sizex">8&frac12;</td> <td class="size">9</td> <td class="sizex">9&frac12;</td> <td class="size">10</td> <td class="sizex">10.5</td> <td class="size">12</td> <td class="sizex">13</td> <td class="size">14</td> <td class="sizex">15.5</td> <th>U.S. &amp; Canada Women</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#CCFF99;font-size:90%" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#CCFFCC'"> <th>Russia &amp; Ukraine Women</th> <td class="size">33&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">34</td> <td class="size">&nbsp;</td> <td class="sizex">35</td> <td class="size">&nbsp;</td> <td class="sizex">36</td> <td class="size">&nbsp;</td> <td class="sizex">37</td> <td class="size">&nbsp;</td> <td class="sizex">38</td> <td class="size">&nbsp;</td> <td class="sizex">39</td> <td class="size">&nbsp;</td> <td class="sizex">&nbsp;</td> <td class="size">&nbsp;</td> <td class="sizex">&nbsp;</td> <th>Russia &amp; Ukraine Women</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#FFCCCC" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#FFCCCC'"> <th>Inches</th> <td class="size">9</td> <td class="sizex">9<span class="small">1/8</span></td> <td class="size">9&frac14;</td> <td class="sizex">9<span class="small">3/8</span></td> <td class="size">9&frac12;</td> <td class="sizex">9<span class="small">5/8</span></td> <td class="size">9&frac34;</td> <td class="sizex">9<span class="small">7/8</span></td> <td class="size">10</td> <td class="sizex">10<span class="small">1/8</span></td> <td class="size">10&frac14;</td> <td class="sizex">10&frac12;</td> <td class="size">10&frac34;</td> <td class="sizex">11</td> <td class="size">11&frac14;</td> <td class="sizex">11&frac12;</td> <th>Inches</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#FFFFCC" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#FFFFCC'"> <th>Centimeters</th> <td class="size">22.8</td> <td class="sizex">23.1</td> <td class="size">23.5</td> <td class="sizex">23.8</td> <td class="size">24.1</td> <td class="sizex">24.5</td> <td class="size">24.8</td> <td class="sizex">25.1</td> <td class="size">25.4</td> <td class="sizex">25.7</td> <td class="size">26</td> <td class="sizex">26.7</td> <td class="size">27.3</td> <td class="sizex">27.9</td> <td class="size">28.6</td> <td class="sizex">29.2</td> <th>Centimeters</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#FFFFFF" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#FFFFFF'"> <th>Mondopoint</th> <td class="size">228</td> <td class="sizex">231</td> <td class="size">235</td> <td class="sizex">238</td> <td class="size">241</td> <td class="sizex">245</td> <td class="size">248</td> <td class="sizex">251</td> <td class="size">254</td> <td class="sizex">257</td> <td class="size">260</td> <td class="sizex">267</td> <td class="size">273</td> <td class="sizex">279</td> <td class="size">286</td> <td class="sizex">292</td> <th>Mondopoint</th> </tr> </table> <br>&nbsp; <table BORDER=2 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=4 > <caption> <h4> Girl's Shoe Sizes</h4> </caption> <tr style="background-color:#FFCCFF" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#FFCCFF'"> <th>Europe</th> <td class="size">26</td> <td class="sizex">26.5</td> <td class="size">27</td> <td class="sizex">27.5</td> <td class="size">28</td> <td class="sizex">28.5</td> <td class="size">29</td> <td class="sizex">30</td> <td class="size">30.5</td> <td class="sizex">31</td> <td class="size">31.5</td> <td class="sizex">32.2</td> <td class="size">33</td> <td class="sizex">33.5</td> <td class="size">34</td> <td class="sizex">35</td> <th>Europe</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#CCCCCC" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#CCCCCC'"> <th>Japan</th> <td class="size">14.5</td> <td class="sizex">15</td> <td class="size">15.5</td> <td class="sizex">16</td> <td class="size">16.5</td> <td class="sizex">17</td> <td class="size">17.5</td> <td class="sizex">18</td> <td class="size">18.5</td> <td class="sizex">19</td> <td class="size">19.5</td> <td class="sizex">20</td> <td class="size">20.5</td> <td class="sizex">21</td> <td class="size">21.5</td> <td class="sizex">22</td> <th>Japan</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#FFFFCC" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#FFFFCC'"> <th>U.K.</th> <td class="size">8</td> <td class="sizex">8.5</td> <td class="size">9</td> <td class="sizex">9.5</td> <td class="size">10</td> <td class="sizex">10.5</td> <td class="size">11</td> <td class="sizex">11.5</td> <td class="size">12</td> <td class="sizex">12.5</td> <td class="size">13</td> <td class="sizex">13.5</td> <td class="size">1</td> <td class="sizex">1.5</td> <td class="size">2</td> <td class="sizex">2.5</td> <th>U.K.</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#CCFFFF" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#CCFFFF'"> <th>U.S. &amp; Canada</th> <td class="size">9.5</td> <td class="sizex">10</td> <td class="size">10.5</td> <td class="sizex">11</td> <td class="size">11.5</td> <td class="sizex">12</td> <td class="size">12.5</td> <td class="sizex">13</td> <td class="size">13.5</td> <td class="sizex">1</td> <td class="size">1.5</td> <td class="sizex">2</td> <td class="size">2.5</td> <td class="sizex">3</td> <td class="size">3.5</td> <td class="sizex">4</td> <th>U.S. &amp; Canada</th> </tr> </table> <p style="text-align:center;"><a href="#top">Top of page</a> <br><a NAME="boy"></a> <h4> "Size Matters Not!" Sure... If you are Yoda. Otherwise, you need to use a conversion table.</h4> <i>Size matters not. Look at me, judge me by my size do you, hmm? And well you should not, for my ally is the Force and a powerful ally it is.</i> <br>&nbsp; <table BORDER=2 CELLSPACING=0 CELLPADDING=4 > <caption>Boys shoe sizes</caption> <tr style="background-color:#FFCCFF" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#FFCCFF'"> <th>Europe</th> <td class="size">29</td> <td class="sizex">29.7</td> <td class="size">30.5</td> <td class="sizex">31</td> <td class="size">31.5</td> <td class="sizex">33</td> <td class="size">33.5</td> <td class="sizex">34</td> <td class="size">34.7</td> <td class="sizex">35</td> <td class="size">35.5</td> <td class="sizex">36</td> <td class="size">37</td> <td class="sizex">37.5</td> <th>Europe</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#CCCCCC" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#CCCCCC'"> <th>Japan</th> <td class="size">16.5</td> <td class="sizex">17</td> <td class="size">17.5</td> <td class="sizex">18</td> <td class="size">18.5</td> <td class="sizex">19</td> <td class="size">19.5</td> <td class="sizex">20</td> <td class="size">20.5</td> <td class="sizex">21</td> <td class="size">21.5</td> <td class="sizex">22</td> <td class="size">22.5</td> <td class="sizex">23</td> <th>Japan</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#FFFFCC" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#FFFFCC'"> <th>U.K.</th> <td class="size">11</td> <td class="sizex">11.5</td> <td class="size">12</td> <td class="sizex">12.5</td> <td class="size">13</td> <td class="sizex">13.5</td> <td class="size">1</td> <td class="sizex">1.5</td> <td class="size">2</td> <td class="sizex">2.5</td> <td class="size">3</td> <td class="sizex">3.5</td> <td class="size">4</td> <td class="sizex">4.5</td> <th>U.K.</th> </tr> <tr style="background-color:#CCFFFF" onmouseover="this.style.color='#FFFFFF';this.style.backgroundColor='#0000FF';" onmouseout="this.style.color='#000000';this.style.backgroundColor='#CCFFFF'"> <th>U.S. &amp; Canada</th> <td class="size">11.5</td> <td class="sizex">12</td> <td class="size">12.5</td> <td class="sizex">13</td> <td class="size">13.5</td> <td class="sizex">1</td> <td class="size">1.5</td> <td class="sizex">2</td> <td class="size">2.5</td> <td class="sizex">3</td> <td class="size">3.5</td> <td class="sizex">4</td> <td class="size">4.5</td> <td class="sizex">5</td> <th>U.S. &amp; Canada</th> </tr> </table> <h4> Notes</h4> <ul> <li> The Mondopoint system is the same as measuring in Millimeters (or Millimetres, mm.). Some companies treat Mondopoint as Centimeters (Centimetres, cm.).</li> <li> American Women's shoe sizes are the same as American Men's shoe sizes plus 1&frac12;.</li> <li> Canadian shoe sizes are equivalent (identical) to American shoe sizes for both Adult and Children's, Men and Women.</li> <li> Mexican shoe sizes plus 1&frac12; are the same as American Men's shoe sizes.</li> <li> British shoe sizes plus 1 are the same as American Men's shoe sizes. However, I see many tables using a formula of British size plus 1&frac12;. Check with the manufacturer.</li> <li> I saw one table on the web indicating British womens running shoe sizes were 1.5 plus mens size. I think this is incorrect and mistakenly applied the United States sizing rule to the U.K.</li> <li> Japanese shoes sizes are American Men's shoes sizes plus 18. (Some companies say add 19.)</li> <li> Europe uses a system that came from the French called Paris Points (aka&nbsp;<span lang="de">Parisien Prick</span>). One Paris Point equals two-thirds of a centimeter. The system starts at zero centimeters and increases. There are no half sizes. American size 0 is the same as 15 Paris Points.</li> <li> 1 Centimeter (Centimetre) is 10 Millimeters (Millimetres).</li> <li> 1 Inch is 2.54 Centimeters (Centimetres).</li> <li> Length in Inches = 7<span class="small">1/3</span> + (US Men's shoe size)*<span class="small">1/3</span></li> <li> Paris Points = 31<span class="small">1/3</span> + (UK shoe size)*<span class="small">4/3</span>.</li> <li> A Chinese 7 is a UK 4. That's all I know at the moment about sizes of shoes in China.</li> <li> Australia and New Zealand use the same shoe sizes as the United Kingdom for boys, men and girls. However, I have seen women's shoe charts where Australia is 1 or 2 sizes bigger than U.K... I added an entry with one size bigger.</li> <li> Korea measures shoe sizes in millimeters (mm.).</li> <li> There are two scales used in the U.S. The standard (or "FIA") scale and the common scales. The "common" scale is more widely used. The scales are about &frac12; size different.</li> <li> Although different kinds of shoes prefer different measurement systems, I believe the charts work for all kinds of shoes. (With the caveat of the variations mentioned above.) I have been looking into army, military, ski, hiking, climbing boots, ladies pumps, high-heeled, spike and dress shoes, as well as sneakers, designer shoes, gentlemen's shoes, causal, penny loafers, sandals, and other styles. I have not been researching children's shoes in much detail. The sizes above are also good for soccer, golf, running and other sports shoes. I have not tried bowling shoes or blue suede sneakers. I intend to get more detail on Nike, Reebok, and Adidas due to the strong interest in running shoes for people coming to this page.</li> <li> If you have information or can point me at information about additional measurement systems of systems used by different countries I would be grateful. (I am interested in Latin America and Eastern Europe.)</li> <li> Russian and Ukraine shoe sizes taken from <a target="_blank" href="http://www.global7network.com/ru/us_en/resources/conversions/shoesize.asp" target="_blank">Global7Network.com</a> See that site for exact sizes in centimeters.</li> </ul> <h4> Men</h4> <table BORDER WIDTH="50%" > <tr> <td WIDTH="3%">English</td> <td WIDTH="3%">4&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">5&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">5&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">6&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">6&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">7&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">7&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">8&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">8&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">9&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">9&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">10&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">10&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">11&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">11&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">12&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">13&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">14&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">15&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="3%">US&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">5&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">6&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">6&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">7&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">7&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">8&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">8&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">9&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">9&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">10&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">10&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">11&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">11&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">12&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">12&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">13&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">14&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">15&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">16&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="3%">French&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">37&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">38&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">38&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">39&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">40&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">40&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">41&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">42&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">42&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">43&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">44&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">44&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">45&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">46&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">46&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">47&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">48&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">49&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">51&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="3%">Japanese&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">23&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">24&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">24&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">25&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">25&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">26&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">26&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">27&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">27&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">28&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">28&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">29</td> <td WIDTH="3%">29&frac12;&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">30&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">&nbsp;</td> </tr> </table> <h4> Women</h4> <table BORDER WIDTH="50%" > <tr> <td WIDTH="3%">English&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">3</td> <td WIDTH="3%">3&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">4</td> <td WIDTH="3%">4&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">5</td> <td WIDTH="3%">5&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">6</td> <td WIDTH="3%">6&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">7</td> <td WIDTH="3%">7&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">8</td> <td WIDTH="3%">8&frac12;</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="3%">US</td> <td WIDTH="3%">4</td> <td WIDTH="1%">4&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">5</td> <td WIDTH="1%">5&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">6</td> <td WIDTH="1%">6&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">7</td> <td WIDTH="1%">7&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">8</td> <td WIDTH="1%">8&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">9</td> <td WIDTH="1%">9&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">10</td> <td WIDTH="1%">10&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">11</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="3%">French</td> <td WIDTH="3%">34</td> <td WIDTH="1%">34&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">35</td> <td WIDTH="1%">35&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">36</td> <td WIDTH="1%">37</td> <td WIDTH="3%">37&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">38</td> <td WIDTH="3%">38&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">39</td> <td WIDTH="3%">40</td> <td WIDTH="1%">40&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">41</td> <td WIDTH="1%">42</td> <td WIDTH="3%">42&frac12;</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="3%">Japanese</td> <td WIDTH="3%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">22</td> <td WIDTH="3%">22&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">23</td> <td WIDTH="3%">23&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">24</td> <td WIDTH="3%">24&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">25</td> <td WIDTH="3%">25&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">26</td> <td WIDTH="3%">26&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="1%">27</td> <td WIDTH="3%">27&frac12;</td> </tr> </table> <h4> Children</h4> <table BORDER WIDTH="50%" > <tr> <td WIDTH="8%">English&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">2</td> <td WIDTH="2%">3</td> <td WIDTH="2%">4</td> <td WIDTH="7%">4&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">5</td> <td WIDTH="2%">6</td> <td WIDTH="2%">7</td> <td WIDTH="2%">8</td> <td WIDTH="7%">8&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">9</td> <td WIDTH="25%">10</td> <td WIDTH="2%">11</td> <td WIDTH="7%">11&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="7%">12</td> <td WIDTH="2%">13</td> <td WIDTH="19%">13&frac12;</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="8%">US</td> <td WIDTH="2%">3</td> <td WIDTH="2%">4</td> <td WIDTH="2%">5</td> <td WIDTH="7%">5&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">6</td> <td WIDTH="2%">7</td> <td WIDTH="2%">8</td> <td WIDTH="2%">9</td> <td WIDTH="7%">9&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">10</td> <td WIDTH="25%">11</td> <td WIDTH="2%">12</td> <td WIDTH="7%">12&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="7%">13</td> <td WIDTH="2%">1</td> <td WIDTH="19%">1&frac12;</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="8%">French</td> <td WIDTH="2%">18</td> <td WIDTH="2%">19</td> <td WIDTH="2%">20</td> <td WIDTH="7%">21</td> <td WIDTH="2%">22</td> <td WIDTH="2%">23</td> <td WIDTH="2%">24</td> <td WIDTH="2%">25</td> <td WIDTH="7%">26</td> <td WIDTH="2%">27</td> <td WIDTH="25%">28</td> <td WIDTH="2%">29</td> <td WIDTH="7%">30</td> <td WIDTH="7%">31</td> <td WIDTH="2%">32</td> <td WIDTH="19%">32&frac12;</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="8%">Japanese</td> <td WIDTH="2%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="7%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="7%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="25%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="7%">18</td> <td WIDTH="7%">18&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="2%">19</td> <td WIDTH="19%">19&frac12;</td> </tr> </table> <h4> Teenagers</h4> <table BORDER WIDTH="50%" > <tr> <td WIDTH="9%">English&nbsp;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">1</td> <td WIDTH="7%">1&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="7%">2</td> <td WIDTH="7%">2&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">3</td> <td WIDTH="24%">3&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="4%">4</td> <td WIDTH="7%">4&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">5</td> <td WIDTH="7%">5&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">6</td> <td WIDTH="16%">6&frac12;</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="9%">US</td> <td WIDTH="3%">2</td> <td WIDTH="7%">2&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="7%">3</td> <td WIDTH="7%">3&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">4</td> <td WIDTH="24%">4&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="4%">5</td> <td WIDTH="7%">5&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">6</td> <td WIDTH="7%">6&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">7</td> <td WIDTH="16%">7&frac12;</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="9%">French</td> <td WIDTH="3%">33</td> <td WIDTH="7%">34</td> <td WIDTH="7%">34&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="7%">35</td> <td WIDTH="3%">35&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="24%">36</td> <td WIDTH="4%">37</td> <td WIDTH="7%">37&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">38</td> <td WIDTH="7%">38&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">39</td> <td WIDTH="16%">40</td> </tr> <tr> <td WIDTH="9%">Japanese</td> <td WIDTH="3%">20</td> <td WIDTH="7%">20&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="7%">21</td> <td WIDTH="7%">21&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">22</td> <td WIDTH="24%">22&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="4%">23</td> <td WIDTH="7%">23&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">24</td> <td WIDTH="7%">24&frac12;</td> <td WIDTH="3%">25</td> <td WIDTH="16%">25&frac12;</td> </tr> </table> <h4> Right-handed, Left-Footed</h4> For most people, the larger foot is the opposite from the hand they write with. Try on shoes starting with your larger foot. <br>Baum I &amp; Spencer AM (1980) Limb Dominance: Its relationship to Foot Length. J Am Pod. Assoc. 70(10): 505-507. <br><img SRC="bigshoeAP410x343.jpg" ALT="Jozef Kovacs with his shoe (AP)" BORDER=0 height=343 width=410> European size 217 men's shoe by <a target="_blank" href="http://www.ananova.com/news/story/sm_548275.html?menu=news.quirkies">Jozsef Kovacs</a> <h4> Shoe Width &amp; Girth</h4> Different shoe styles have different girths for the same shoe size, and so do different shoe materials. Some manufacturers measure in width, some in girth. Sometimes the difference&nbsp; is 1/4 inch, sometimes 3/16ths of an inch and sometimes something else. The scale does not count upward in a logical, incremental way, but uses letters: <p>&nbsp; AAAA (The narrowest) <br>&nbsp; AAA <br>&nbsp; AA <br>&nbsp; A <br>&nbsp; B <br>&nbsp; C <br>&nbsp; D <br>&nbsp; E <br>&nbsp; EE <br>&nbsp; EEE <br>&nbsp; EEEE (The widest) <p>No one knowswhy there isn't a BB or a CCC :-) <h4> Foot measurements</h4> from The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology <a target="_blank" href="http://www.dh.aist.go.jp/">Digital Human Research Center</a>, Japan <center><img SRC="footmes.gif" BORDER=0 height=260 width=501></center> <table BORDER CELLSPACING=2 CELLPADDING=0 WIDTH="450" > <tr> <td></td> <td><font size=-1>Abbreviation</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Measurement item</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>1</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M1&nbsp;</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Bimalleolar breadth</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>2</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M2</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Medial malleolus height</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>3</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M3</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Sphyrion height</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>4</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M4</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Lateral malleolus height</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>5</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M5</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Sphyrion fibulare height</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>6</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M6</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Dorsal arch height</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>7</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M7</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Ball height</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>8</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M8</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Outside ball height</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>9</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M9</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Great toe tip height</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>10</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M10</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Great toe height</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>11</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M11</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Foot circumference</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>12</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M12</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Instep circumference</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>13</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M13</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Heel circumference</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>14</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M14</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Diagonal ankle circumference</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>15</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M15</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Foot length</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>16</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M16</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Foot breadth</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>17</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M17</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Foot breadth, diagonal</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>18</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M18</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Foot length (JLIA)</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>19</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M19</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Foot length (DIN)</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>20</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M20</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Instep length</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>21</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M21</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Fibular instep length</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>22</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M22</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Back of foot length</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>23</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M23</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Heel to medial malleolus</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>24</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M24</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Heel to lateral malleolus</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>25</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M25</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Foot breadth, diagonal (JLIA)</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>26</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M26</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Ball breadth</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>27</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M27</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Foot breadth (DIN)</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>28</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M28</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Heel breadth</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>29</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M29</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Ball flex angle</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>30</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M30</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Toe I angle</font></td> </tr> <tr> <td><font size=-1>31</font></td> <td><font size=-1>M31</font></td> <td><font size=-1>Toe V angle</font></td> </tr> </table> <p><img SRC="Fig_foot_1.JPG" BORDER=0 height=250 width=365><img SRC="Fig_foot_2.JPG" BORDER=0 height=200 width=437><img SRC="Fig_foot_3.JPG" BORDER=0 height=200 width=437> <br><img SRC="Fig_foot_4.JPG" BORDER=0 height=450 width=245><img SRC="Fig_foot_5.JPG" BORDER=0 height=450 width=268><img SRC="Fig_foot_6.JPG" BORDER=0 height=450 width=224><img SRC="Fig_foot_7.JPG" BORDER=0 height=450 width=210> <br> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WN2-4CSG40V-4&_user=2807706&_handle=B-WA-A-W-BZ-MsSAYVW-UUA-AUEZVBCCWD-AUEVUAZBWD-CEWYEEWAY-BZ-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2004&_rdoc=31&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236950%232004%23999369995%23514479!&_cdi=6950&view=c&_acct=C000058846&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=2807706&md5=7d4fd541ab68289cf666ad6f382327cc#m4.cor*">Shoes &amp; schizophrenia?</a></h3> Is there an association between the use of heeled footwear and schizophrenia? <br><a href="mailto:flensmark@spray.se">Jarl Flensmark</a>, Medical Hypotheses (2004) 63:740-747. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Existing etiological and pathogenetical theories of schizophrenia have only been able to find support in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; some epidemiological, clinical, and pathophysiological facts. A selective literature review and synthesis <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; is used to present a hypothesis that finds support in all facts and is contradicted by none. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Heeled footwear began to be used more than a 1000 years ago, and led to the occurrence of the first <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; cases of schizophrenia. Industrialization of shoe production increased schizophrenia prevalence. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Mechanization of the production started in Massachusetts, spread from there to England and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Germany, and then to the rest of Western Europe. A remarkable increase in schizophrenia prevalence <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; followed the same pattern. In Baden in Germany the increasing stream of young patients more or less <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; hastily progrediating to a severe state of cognitive impairment made it possible for Kraepelin to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; delineate dementia praecox as a nosological entity. The patients continued to use heeled shoes after <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; they were admitted to the hospitals and the disease progrediated. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; High rates of schizophrenia are found among first-generation immigrants from regions with a warmer <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; climate to regions with a colder climate, where the use of shoes is more common. Still higher rates <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; among second-generation immigrants are caused by the use of shoes during the onset of walking at an <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; age of about 11 12 months. Other findings point to the importance of this in the later development of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; schizophrenia. A child born in January March begins to walk in December March, when it's cold <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; outside and the chances of going barefoot are smaller. They are also smaller in urban settings. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; During walking synchronised stimuli from mechanoreceptors in the lower extremities increase activity <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; in cerebello-thalamo-cortico-cerebellar loops through their action on NMDA-receptors. Using heeled <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; shoes leads to weaker stimulation of the loops. Reduced cortical activity changes dopaminergic <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; function which involves the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical-nigro-basal ganglia loops. Bicycle riding <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; reduces depression in schizophrenia due to stronger stimulation by improved lengthening contractions <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of the triceps surae muscles. Electrode stimulation of cerebellar loops normally stimulated by <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; mechanoreceptors in the lower extremities could improve functioning in schizophrenia. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Cross-sectional prevalence studies of the association between the use of heeled footwear and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; schizophrenia should be made in immigrants from regions with a warmer climate or in groups of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; people who began to wear shoes at different ages. <h4> Introduction</h4> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Schizophrenia is the most serious mental illness characterized by disturbances of thought, behaviour <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and mood appearing in young adults and by a deteriorating course. Many etiological hypotheses have <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; been advanced, e.g., that schizophrenia is wholly genetic, or that environmental factors such as <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; pregnancy or birth complications or early infections are also important, but have not succeeded in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; finding a correspondence between etiology, clinical findings, course and outcome, brain pathology and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; probable variations of prevalence. It is considered to be either a developmental or a degenerative <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; disease, or a combination of both [1]. The diversity of symptoms have been difficult to explain by a <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; unifying disease process [2]. <br>&nbsp; <h4> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; History and epidemiology</h4> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The evolution of bipedal, plantigrade gait probably occurred about ten million years ago. The first type <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of shoe was a simple wraparound of leather, with the basic construction of a moccasin. Although <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; sandals were the most common footwear in most early civilizations, shoes were also worn. The oldest <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; depiction of a heeled shoe comes from Mesopotamia [3], and in this part of the world we also find the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; first institutions making provisions for mental disorders. Possibly they and all the others that followed <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; were created because of the imperative need to care for people affected by schizophrenia. Hospitals <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; with psychiatric divisions were created in Baghdad (AD 750) and in Cairo (873). Special insane <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; asylums were built in Damascus (800), Aleppo (1270), and in the Muslim-ruled Spanish city of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Grenada (1365) [4]. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In Europe around 1400 we find Middle Eastern shoes with a wedged sole, and cloglike overshoes <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; called pattens, which by then were wedge-shaped at the back, raising the foot at the heel slightly <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; above the fore-part of the foot, and thus functioning as heeled shoes. The creation of institutions for <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the insane was also imported to Europe from the Orient as hospitals with psychiatric divisions were <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; erected in Paris, Lyon, Munich, Basel, and Zurich in the 13th century. Bethlehem hospital in London <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; began receiving the insane in 1377. The first Christian European asylums were founded in Valencia <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (1409), Saragosa (1425), Seville and Valladolid (1436), and Toledo (1483) under the influence of Islam <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [4]. During the 15th and 16th centuries the number of asylums in Europe grew dramatically. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the beginning schizophrenia appears to be more common in the upper classes. Possible early victims <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; were King Richard II (1367 1400) and Henry VI (1421 1471) of England, his grandfather Charles VI <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (1368 1422) of France, his mother Jeanne de Bourbon, and his uncle Louis II de Bourbon, Erik XIV <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (1535 1577) of Sweden, Juana (1479 1555) of Castile, her grandmother Isabella of Portugal and her <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; grandson Don Carlos (1545 1563), of Schiller and Verdi fame [5]. Probably the upper classes began <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; using heeled footwear earlier than the lower classes. Several studies from India since the 1930s <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; confirm that schizophrenia first affects the upper classes [6]. The relation to a change in the use of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; footwear is also apparent here, since modern European and American footwear probably were being <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; more common in India during these years. As early as 1740 the Danish French anatomist Jakob <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Winslow [7] warned against the wearing of heeled shoes, expecting it to be the cause of certain <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; infirmities which appear not to have any relation to it. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In England the heeled shoe became fashionable from the beginning of the 17th century. The Civil <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Wars (1642 1651) brought army orders for boots and shoes, and the emergence of the modern <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; pattern of shoemaking [8]. An increase in the use of heeled footwear followed and probably a gradual <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; increase in the prevalence of schizophrenia [9]. Torrey and Miller [10] suggest that insanity rates <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; increased at least sevenfold between the mid-18th and the mid-20th centuries. From the beginning of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the 19th century a probable increase in the use of heeled footwear by children learning to walk led to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the appearance of the classical juvenile type of schizophrenia [11] (see Fig. 1). <br>&nbsp; <p><img SRC="schizophrenia.jpg" height=262 width=323> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Figure 1. Total admissions (all diagnoses) per 1000 population to asylums in Masssachusetts <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (averages of two yearly admissions per decennium) [12], England and Wales (five-year averages) <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [13], Baden (five- and four-year averages) [14], and Sweden (five-year averages) [15,16 and 17], <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; during the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. <br>&nbsp; <br>&nbsp; <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the United States insanity rates appear to have increased even greater than in England between the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; mid-18th and the mid-20th centuries. Shoe production increased in Massachusetts after the Revolution <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (1776 1783), and the prevalence of insanity/schizophrenia increased from the 1830s. It was common <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; opinion during this time that mental diseases increased, and that the increase was most pronounced in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the United States. During the 1830s and 1840s asylums were built in almost every state. Torrey and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bowler [18] report that in 1852 insanity was more common in manufacturing and mercantile <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; communities in Massachusetts than in farming areas. These communities probably took part in the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; early industrial production or distribution of footwear in this state, making it probable that they used <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; factory-made footwear earlier than other communities. The Civil War (1861 1865) gave a major <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; impetus to mechanised shoe production, and the establishment of a shoe machine industry in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Massachusetts led to shoes being made quickly and inexpensively, the use of factory-made, heeled <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; footwear spread to the masses in the United States, and then to England, Germany, the rest of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Western Europe, and all over the world, and the prevalence of schizophrenia increased everywhere. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; White [19] reviewed the data of the 1880 Census and noticed that the prevalence of insanity was <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; higher in the northeastern states, and that it declined with the distance from them. A graph of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; admissions to asylums in Massachusetts shows a steep rise between 1828 and 1843. The increase of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; admissions to asylums in Connecticut comes some 20 years later, in New York State some 30 years <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; later, and in Pennsylvania there is but a slow rise up to 1875. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In Germany mechanised shoe production was established later than in the United States and England. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Total admissions to asylums in Baden rose steeply between 1887 and 1907. Kraepelin was director of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the Psychiatric Clinic at the University of Heidelberg 1891 1903, and in the middle of the steeply <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; rising phase of the schizophrenia epidemic in this state he wrote the 4 7th editions of his textbook. An <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; increasing stream of young patients more or less hastily progrediating to a state of severe cognitive <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; impairment made it possible for Kraepelin [20] to delineate dementia praecox as a nosological entity. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In Sweden industrial shoe production started in the 1870s, but did not make a breakthrough until tariff <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; protection increased in 1897. Around 1908 1910 factory made shoes were available for the rural <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; population. In 1913 the shoe industry had enough capacity for the needs of the Swedish market. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; During World War I there was a shortage, thereafter the prevalence of schizophrenia rose. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Hare [21] discusses the increase of admissions to asylums in England between 1859 and 1909 and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; concludes that schizophrenia could account for at least 40% of the increase. Eaton et al. [22] state <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; that the majority of patients with psychosis in Massachusetts from 1840 to 1940 had schizophrenia. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The situation in Sweden in the beginning of the 20th century probably was similar, manic-depressive <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; disorder did not show much change over time, and the number of beds was always insufficient to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; allow admission of minor afflictions. Shorter [11] suggests that neurosyphilis and alcoholism together <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; represented overall only a fraction of all admissions in the Western World, and that there is enough <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; evidence to justify the conjecture that the incidence of schizophrenia rose significantly during the 19th <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; century. It is probably justifiable to assume that the figure illustrates the approximate rise in incidence <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of schizophrenia in the four populations. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; After heeled shoes is introduced into a population the first cases of schizophrenia appear and then the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; increase in prevalence of schizophrenia follows the increase in use of heeled shoes with some delay. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; After the prevalence of schizophrenia has reached a maximum there probably is some decrease, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; although there is no decrease in the use of heeled shoes. Evidence from nearly a century of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; epidemiological research indicates that schizophrenia occurs in all populations with a prevalence rate in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the range of 1.4 4.6 per 1000 population [23]. Different methods of case finding and ascertainment <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; will result in different prevalence rates and so will demographic differences. Many studies of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; geographical variations have been criticized for imperfect methodologies but can probably not be <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ignored, especially not the modern migration studies. They do, however, not point in any single <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; etiological direction. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the mid-latitude climates people traditionally wore flat shoes or boots, in some regions and during <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; summer some people, particularly children, went barefoot, in Sweden for example well into the 20th <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; century. B&ouml;&ouml;k [24], in a study of an isolated population of predominantly Finnish ethnicity in the Torne <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Valley in Sweden in 1949, found a schizophrenia prevalence rate of 9.5 per 1000, and B&ouml;&ouml;k et al. [25], <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; in a re-study in 1977, 17 per 1000, one of the highest rates found in any major study in the world to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; date. In Ireland insanity rates appears to have increased more than in England between the mid-18th <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and the mid-20th centuries [10]. High rates of schizophrenia have consistently been reported and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; might partly be explained by selective out-migration over several generations [26]. Most of the Irish <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; have, however, gone barefoot well into the 19th century. Rainfall is important for the use of footwear, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the western parts of Ireland have more rainfall and also have a higher rate of schizophrenia than the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; north-eastern parts. Torrey et al. [27] found a prevalence rate in a rural area in Western Ireland more <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; than seven times the rate found in Dublin [28], where there also is less rainfall. Data collected <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1962 1966 show that the prevalence of schizophrenia in Istria was twice that in the rest of Croatia, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; which probably indicates that the change to heeled shoes occured earlier in Istria, which belonged to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Italy 1919 1947, had a large proportion of Italian inhabitants and probably was more influenced by <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; West European fashions [29]. Opankes, a one-piece moccasin-style construction, were widely born in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; rural Balkan regions, where they were often made by the wearers themselves, and mass produced by <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the 19th century. The consistently high rates also found in Istria might also be partly explained by <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; selective out-migration over several generations [26]. Among Native Americans, who used moccasins, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; a relative infrequency of schizophrenia has been noted [6]. The Hutterites and the Amish are <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; members of conservative Christian groups of Austrian, Swiss, and German origin now living in the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; United States and Canada where they operate farms, remain aloof from outside society and retain <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; their uniform 16th and 17th century European folk costumes, which included flat shoes. In the 1930s <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; insanity was said to be almost non-existent in the Hutterite population. By 1944 members were to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; some extent authorized to wear modern "high" shoes. In 1950 1953, Eaton and Weil [30] and Torrey <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [31] found a schizophrenia prevalence rate of 1.3 per 1000. A re-study in 1992 1993 by Nimgaonkar <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; et al. [32] found 1.2 per 1000. There were only four cases of schizophrenia among ?12.500 Amish <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; studied 1976 1980 by Egeland and Hostetter [33], that is circa 0.3 per 1000. The Amish and the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Hutterites prevalence rates are less than 25% of the rates reported for rural areas in the United States <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; in recent studies [28]. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the coldest climates people traditionally wore flat boots. The Saami live in Norway, Sweden, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Finland, and the Kola Peninsula in Russia. The Swedish Census of 1930 [34] reports a prevalence of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; insanity in the Saami that was twice that in the general population. Andersen [35] found more acute <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; psychoses in a Saami than in a non-Saami population. In 1944 Bremer [36] found a schizophrenia <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; prevalence rate of 5.3 per 1000 in Berlev&aring;g, an isolated fishing village in Northern Norway on Barents <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Sea predominantly inhabited by people of Norwegian ethnicity. A relative isolation from the main parts <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of Norway made them use Saami boots right up to the 1930s. Lynge et al. [37] found a higher <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; prevalence of schizophrenia in the Greenlandic population compared to the population in Denmark. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The traditional Greenlandic footwear is a sealskin boot, and as long as these were worn there probably <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; was no schizophrenia in the population, older literature describes it as at least very uncommon. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the warmest climates people traditionally went barefoot or used sandals. The almost complete <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; absence of schizophrenia is noted in several reports from Africa before World War II [6], Torrey [28], <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; in a review of prevalence studies, reproduces data from Ghana in 1984, 0.5 per 1000, and Botswana in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1986, 2.0 per 1000. In the Pacific Islands many observations indicated the absence of schizophrenia. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; There was a 20-fold difference in rates between some highland districts and some coastal districts, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; this could be explained by more contacts with the Western World and its fashions [38]. Surveys in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Taiwan in three Chinese communities 1946 1948 [39] and in four Aboriginal tribes 1949 1953 [40] <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; reported a schizophrenia prevalence rate of 2.1 per 1000 in the Chinese and between 0 and 1.1 in the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Aborigines. Probably the use of modern shoes was more common in the Chinese, who mostly lived in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the towns and were more influenced by Western fashions. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Other studies show the effects of people migrating from a region with less common use of heeled <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; footwear to a region with more common use. The high prevalence of insanity in European immigrants <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; in the United States was noted already in the middle of the 19th century. Odegaard [41] found higher <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; total admission rates of Norwegian immigrants than of native Americans in an asylum in Minnesota <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; between 1889 and 1929. The admission rate for schizophrenia was also higher in Norwegians in the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Minnesota asylum than in an asylum in Norway. White noticed that the prevalence of insanity in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; African Americans increased when they migrated from the South to the North, and &Ouml;degard [42] <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; mentions the immigration from Puerto Rico to New York City after World War II, where the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; frequency of schizoprenia in immigrants was nearly double that in native New Yorkers. Schizophrenia <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; has been common among Irish immigrants to the United States [6], probably because they began to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; use heeled footwear. High rates of schizophrenia in African Caribbean immigrants in Britain since the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1960s [43] higher admission rates in the second-generation than in the first-generation immigrants [44], <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and a morbid risk in second-generation siblings of patients with schizophrenia that is 3.0 6.2 times <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; higher than in the first-generation ones [45 and 46], strengthens the possibility that the high rates are <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; attributable to an environmental factor, probably that children in Britain learn to walk wearing shoes <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; while children in the Caribbean go barefoot. High rates of schizophrenia has also been found in The <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Netherlands in immigrants of British-Indian and African origin from Surinam and the Netherlands <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Antilles, in immigrants from Morocco and Cape Verde but not from Turkey [47]. Turkish men have <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; worn heeled footwear since the 15 16th centuries, West European styles since mid-19th century, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; women from the 1870s. High rates have also been found among immigrants to Sweden, especially <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; from East-Africa [48]. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Torrey [6] discusses the role of civilization/industrialization in the etiology of schizophrenia. The <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; industrial revolution, which started in England in the middle of the 18th century, resulted in the 19th <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; century in a GNP per capita which was nearly double that of the rest of Western Europe and the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; United States, not until the 1890s was England surpassed by the United States, whose economy grew <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; dramatically after the Civil War. No other factor associated with this general economic development <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; can explain the rapid increase in the prevalence of insanity/schizophrenia in Massachusetts during the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1830s and 1840s but the increased shoe production. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; There probably is a linkage between an increase in space and time in the use of heeled footwear, and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; an increase in the prevalence of schizophrenia. A slowly rising epidemic in England, probably from the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; end of the 18th century, was followed by a more rapidly rising epidemic in the United States from the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1830s, and then in Germany and Sweden. Such epidemics of schizophrenia could probably only have <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; been caused by one and the same etiologic factor acting in populations with individuals genetically less <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; adapted to the change. Changing symptoms and incidence, increasing age of onset, a change in course <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and outcome strengthen the idea of epidemics of schizophrenia. World, ethnic, and national dress are <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; inter-related in today's global community, and modern studies of schizophrenia occurence in different <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; groups and different countries often find no great differences [49]. Differences found could be <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; attributed to different time courses of prevalences in different groups. <br>&nbsp; <h4> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Physiology</h4> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Lengthening contractions of the triceps surae muscles during walking results in synchronised barrages <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of impulses from the mechanoreceptors reaching the cerebello-thalamo-cortico-cerebellar loops where <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; they increase cortical excitability [50]. The left and the right parts of the cerebellum are stimulated <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; alternately. Stimulation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors leads to expression of synaptic proteins <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and modifications in synaptic and dendritic organization [51]. Using heeled shoes weakens the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; lengthening contractions and the stimulation of the receptors, and a decrease in cortical activity leads <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; to a change in dopaminergic function thereby involving the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortico-basal ganglia <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; loops, too [52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 and 58]. Heath [59] found that electrode stimulation of the anterior <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; parts of the cerebellum could improve functioning in schizophrenia. These parts are normally <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; stimulated by impulses from stretch receptors in the lower extremities. Bicycling reduces depression in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; schizophrenia and this is probably due to the improved lengthening contractions of the triceps surae. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Involvement of different loops in different brain regions leads to different symptoms and signs [60, 61, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 62, 63 and 64]. The neuropathology of schizophrenia represents the anatomical substrate of abberant <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; functional connectivity [65]. Susceptibility genes for schizophrenia may have convergent effects on <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; glutamatergic and other synapses [66]. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; According to Ledebt et al. [67] gait initiation starts when the child stands up and then begins to fall <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; forward. The first few months after onset of walking are followed by a period of development of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; anticipatory behaviour participating in a finer tuning of postural and locomotor components of gait. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; White children reach independent walking at a mean age of 11.6 months and black children at 10.9 <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; months [68]. Jamaican infants walk earlier than infants from five European countries [69], the warm <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; climate probably giving them a better chance to walk barefoot. A study from Philadelphia in 1979 [70] <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; found that infants receive their first walking shoes at an average age of 8.1 months. Such shoes look <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; quite flat but are provided with insoles that are somewhat thicker in the heel part, so as to function as <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; heeled shoes. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The earlier in life children wear shoes the more vulnerable they may be as cellular proliferation and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; migration in the cerebellum does not cease until after the child begins to walk [71]. Degree of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; urbanization of birthplace or upbringing might be associated with the rate of schizophrenia and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; probably is a proxy variable for the use of shoes when the child begins to walk, urban children more <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; often wearing shoes than rural children [72]. The seasonal variation of schizophrenia births [73] also <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; could be explained by the use of shoes. A child born in January March begins to walk about 11 12 <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; months later, in December March when its winter and cold and the child probably has the least <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; chance to go barefoot. Birth deficits in the summer and fall months could likewise be explained by the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; better chance of going barefoot. Data from the British 1946 Birth Cohort [74] show that milestones of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; motor development, particularly walking, were delayed in children who went on to develop <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; schizophrenia as adults. Another study found that the ages at learning to walk was related to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; subsequent incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses [75]. Gait peculiarities in schizophrenia <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; were noted already by Eugen Bleuler. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Schizophrenia is supposed to have its origins in developmental processes that transpire prior to the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; onset of clinical symptoms [1], but it is difficult to explain how an early static lesion could lead to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; clinically apparent schizophrenia twenty years later. A continuous faulty stimulation of the cerebellar <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; loops during many years, often starting when the child begins to walk, may, after at least ten years, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; result in clinically apparent schizophrenia. Norwegian immigrants [41] spent at least 10 years in the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; United States before they were admitted to an asylum, that is, they had to use heeled footwear for at <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; least so many years. Immigrants with schizophrenia or other non-affective psychoses spent a mean of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; nine years in Sweden before first contact with psychiatry [48]. That continuous faulty stimulation leads <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; to schizophrenia implies progressive brain pathology, and Kraepelin originally described dementia <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; praecox as a progrediating disease, and considered it to be a self-inflicted poisoning. The patients <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; continued to wear heeled shoes in the asylums, and the continued faulty stimulation led to progressive <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; degeneration. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The onset of schizophrenia during the adolescence may be related to the maturation of the dopamine <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; controlled basal ganglia loops during these years [76], which is modulated by gonadal hormones [77]. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Reduced glutamatergic stimulation of the cerebellar loops may not have an apparent effect until <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; puberty and early adulthood, when these loops mature [57 and 76]. <br>&nbsp; <h4> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Conclusions</h4> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Many data suggest an association between the use of heeled footwear and schizophrenia and they <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; could probably be questioned in many instances. I have however not been able to find any <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; contradictory data. One possibility would be the existence of young patients not being able to use their <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; legs during many years and yet having schizophrenia. I have never seen such a patient. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; I suggest that there is an association between the use of heeled footwear and schizophrenia. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Cross-sectional prevalence studies should be performed, e.g., in immigrants from regions with less use <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of footwear, or for example in India where different groups of people begin to wear shoes at different <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ages. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The effects of the use of heeled and flat shoes during shorter or longer periods of time on cortical <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; excitability [54], and on connectivity in cerebellar and basal ganglia loops [52 and 55] could be studied <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; in patients with schizophrenia. A normalization of patterns would indicate the importance of the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; proposed neural pathways in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Patients could be recruited to clinical trials of the effects of using only flat shoes as long as possible on <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; symptoms and cognitive deficits. <br>&nbsp; <br>&nbsp; <h4> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Acknowledgements</h4> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; June Swann, MBE, Northampton, England and Professor H&aring;vard Dahl Bratrein, Tromso, Norway for <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; contributions to the history of footwear. <br>&nbsp; <h4> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; References</h4> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1. D.R. Weinberger and R. McLure, Neurotoxicity, neuroplasticity, and magnetic resonance imaging <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; morphometry  what is happening in the schizophrenic brain?. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 59 (2002), pp. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 553 558. Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 2. N.C. Andreasen, P. Nopoulos, D.S. O'Leary, D.D. Miller, T. Wassink and M. Flaum, Defining the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; phenotype of schizophrenia: cognitive dysmetria and its neural mechanisms. Biol. Psychiat. 46 (1999), <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; pp. 908 920. Abstract | Full Text + Links | PDF (2153 K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3. S.F. Stewart, Footgear  its history; uses and abuses. Clin. Orthopaed. Rel. Res. 88 (1972), pp. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 119 130. Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 4. R. Colp, Jr., History of psychiatry. In: B.J. Sadock and V.A. Sadock, Editors, Kaplan and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Sadock's comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (7th ed.), Lippincott Williams &amp; Wilkins, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Philadelphia (2000). <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 5. V. Green, The madness of kings. , St Martin Press, New York (1993). <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 6. E.F. Torrey, Schizophrenia and civilization. , Jason Aronson, New York (1980). <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 7. M. Linder and C.L. Saltzman, A history of medical scientists on high heels. Int. J. Health Serv. 28 <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (1998), pp. 201 225. Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 8. Swann J. Shoemaking. Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire: Shire Publications; 1986 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 9. E. Hare, Was insanity on the increase?. Br. J. Psychiat. 142 (1983), pp. 439 455. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-PsycINFO&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 10. E.F. Torrey and J. Miller, The invisible plague  the rise of mental illness from 1750 to the present. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; , Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ (2002). <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 11. E. Shorter, A history of psychiatry. , Wiley, New York (1997) p. 50 62 . <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 12. G.N. Grob, Mental institutions in America  social policy to 1875. , Free Press, New York (1973) <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; p. 379 80 . <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 13. Commissioners in Lunacy. Annual Reports 1854 1913. London, HMSO; 1855 1914 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 14. K. Wilmanns, Die Zunahme der anstaltsbedurftigen Geisteskranken in Baden und ihre Ursachen. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Zfdg Neurologie u Psychiatrie 4 (1911), pp. 617 628. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 15. Sveriges officiella statistik. Bidrag till. K, Helso- och sjukv&aring;rden. 2; 1853 1900. Stockholm; <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1854 1902 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 16. Sveriges officiella statistik. K, Helso- och sjukv&aring;rden. 2; 1901 1910. Stockholm; 1903 1912 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 17. Sveriges officiella statistik. H&auml;lso- och sjukv&aring;rd, Sinnessjukv&aring;rd; 1911 1939. Stockholm; <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1913 1941 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 18. E.F. Torrey and A. Bowler, Geographical distribution of insanity in America: evidence for an <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; urban factor. Schizophr. Bull. 16 (1990), pp. 591 604. Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-PsycINFO | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 19. W.A. White, The geographical distribution of insanity in the United States. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 30 <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (1903), pp. 257 279. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 20. E. Kraepelin, Memoirs. , Springer, Berlin (1987) p. 43 4, 59 61, 65 . <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 21. E. Hare, Schizophrenia as a recent disease. Br. J. Psychiat. 153 (1988), pp. 521 531. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-PsycINFO | Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-EMBASE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 22. W.W. Eaton, R. Day and M. Kramer, The use of epidemiology for risk factor research in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; schizophrenia: an overview and methodological critique. In: M.T. Tsuang and J.C. Simpson, Editors, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Handbook of schizophrenia vol. 13, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1988). <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 23. A. Jablensky, Epidemiology of schizophrenia: the global burden of disease and disability. Eur. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Arch. Psychiat. Clin. Neurosci. 250 (2000), pp. 274 285. Abstract-PsycINFO | Abstract-EMBASE <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; | Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 24. J.A. B&ouml;&ouml;k, A genetic and neuropsychiatric investigation of a North-Swedish population. Acta <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Genet. 4 (1953), pp. 1 100. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 25. J.A. B&ouml;&ouml;k, L. Wetterberg and K. Modrzewska, Schizophrenia in a North Swedish geographical <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; isolate, 1900 1977. Epidemiology, genetics and biochemistry. Clin. Genet. 14 (1978), pp. 373 394. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-EMBASE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 26. A. Jablensky, Epidemiology of schizophrenia: a European perspective. In: A. Seva, Editor, The <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; European handbook of psychiatry and mental health, Anthropos, Barcelona (1991). <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 27. E.F. Torrey, M. McGuire, A. O'Hare, D. Walsh and M.P. Spellman, Endemic psychosis in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Western Ireland. Am. J. Psychiat. 141 (1984), pp. 966 969. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 28. E.F. Torrey, Prevalence studies in schizophrenia. Br. J. Psychiat. 150 (1987), pp. 598 608. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-PsycINFO | Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 29. G.M. Crocetti, P.V. Lemkau, Z. Kulcar and B. Kesic, Selected aspects of the epidemiology of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; psychoses in Croatia, Yugoslavia. III. The cluster sample and the results of the pilot survey. Am. J. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Epidemiol. 94 (1971), pp. 126 134. Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 30. J.W. Eaton and R.J. Weil, Culture and mental disorders: a comparative study of the hutterites and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; other populations. , Free Press, Glencoe, IL (1955). <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 31. E.F. Torrey, Prevalence of psychosis among the Hutterites: a reanalysis of the 1950 53 study. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Schizophr. Res. 16 (1995), pp. 167 170. Abstract | Full Text + Links | PDF (269 K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 32. V.L. Nimgaonkar, T.M. Fujiwara, M. Dutta et al., Low prevalence of psychosis among the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Hutterites, an isolated religious community. Am. J. Psychiat. 157 (2000), pp. 1065 1070. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-PsycINFO&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | Full Text via <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 33. J.A. Egeland and A.M. Hostetter, Amish study, I: Affective disorders among the Amish, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1976 1980. Am. J. Psychiat. 140 (1983), pp. 56 61. Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-EMBASE | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-PsycINFO&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 34. Sveriges officiella statistik. Folkr&auml;kningen den, 31 December; 1930. Del IV. Stockholm; 1936. p. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 19 20 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 35. T. Andersen, Physical and mental illness in a Lapp and a Norwegian population. Acta Psychiatr. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Scand. Suppl. 263 (1975), pp. 47 56. Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-PsycINFO | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 36. J. Bremer, A social psychiatric investigation of a small community in Northern Norway. Acta <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Psychiat. Neurol. Suppl. 62 (1951). <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 37. I. Lynge, P.B. Mortensen and P. Munk-Jorgensen, Mental disorders in the Greenlandic population. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; A register study. Int. J. Circumpolar Health 58 (1999), pp. 188 197. Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 38. E.F. Torrey, B.B. Torrey and B.G. Burton-Bradley, The epidemiology of schizophrenia in Papua <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; New Guinea. Am. J. Psychiat. 131 (1974), pp. 567 573. Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-PsycINFO | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 39. T. Lin, A study of the incidence of mental disorder in Chinese and other cultures. Psychiatry 16 <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (1953), pp. 313 336. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 40. H. Rin and T. Lin, Mental illness among Formosan Aborigines as compared with the Chinese in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Taiwan. J. Ment. Sci. 108 (1962), pp. 134 146. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 41. O. Odegaard, Emigration and insanity. Acta. Psychiat. Neurol. Suppl. 4 (1932). <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 42. &Ouml;. &Ouml;degard, Die Epidemiologie der Psychosen. Nervenarzt 42 (1971), pp. 569 575. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 43. M. Sharpley, G. Hutchinson, K. McKenzie and R.M. Murray, Understanding the excess of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; psychosis among the African Caribbean population in England. Br. J. Psychiat. 178 Suppl. 40 (2001), <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; pp. 60 68. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 44. D. McGovern and R.V. Cope, First psychiatric admission rates of first and second generation <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Afro Caribbeans. Soc. Psychiat. 22 (1987), pp. 139 149. Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-PsycINFO <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; | Abstract-EMBASE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 45. P.A. Sugarman and D. Craufurd, Schizophrenia in the Afro-Caribbean community. Br. J. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Psychiat. 164 (1994), pp. 474 480. Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-PsycINFO <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 46. G. Hutchinson, N. Takei, T.A. Fahy et al., Morbid risk of schizoprhenia in first-degree relatives of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; white and African Caribbean patients with psychosis. Br. J. Psychiat. 169 (1996), pp. 776 780. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-PsycINFO | Abstract-Elsevier BIOBASE | Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 47. J.P. Selten, N. Veen, W. Feller et al., Incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrant groups to The <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Netherlands. Br. J. Psychiat. 178 (2001), pp. 367 372. Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-Elsevier <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; BIOBASE | Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-PsycINFO&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | Full Text via <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 48. K. Zolkowska, E. Cantor-Graae and T. McNeil, Increased rates of psychosis among immigrants to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Sweden: is migration a risk factor for psychosis?. Psychol. Med. 31 (2001), pp. 669 678. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-PsycINFO&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | Full Text via <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 49. A. Jablensky, N. Sartorius, G. Ernberg et al., Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; in different cultures. A World Health Organization ten-country study. Psychol. Med. Monograph <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Suppl. 20 (1992). <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 50. B.L. Day, H. Riescher, A. Struppler, J.C. Rothwell and C.D. Marsden, Changes in the response <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; to magnetic and electrical stimulation of the motor cortex following muscle stretch in man. J. Physiol. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (London) 433 (1991), pp. 41 57. Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-EMBASE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 51. M. Molinari, V. Filippini and M.G. Leggio, Neuronal plasticity of interrelated cerebellar and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; cortical networks. Neuroscience 111 (2002), pp. 863 870. Abstract | Full Text + Links | PDF (292 <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 52. K.E. Stephan, V.A. Magnotta, T. White et al., Effects of olanzapin on cerebellar functional <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; connectivity in schizophrenia measured by fMRI during a simple motor task. Psychol. Med. 31 <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (2001), pp. 1065 1078. Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-PsycINFO&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Document | Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 53. E.B. Mukaetova-Ladinska, J. Hurt, W.G. Honer, C.R. Harrington and C.M. Wischik, Loss of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; synaptic but not cytoskeletal proteins in the cerebellum of chronic schizophrenics. Neurosci. Lett. 317 <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (2002), pp. 161 165. Abstract | Full Text + Links | PDF (182 K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 54. P. Eichhammer, R. Wiegand, A. Kharraz, B. Langguth, H. Binder and G. Hajak, Cortical <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; excitability in neuroleptic-naive first episode schizophrenic patients. Schizophr. Res. 67 (2004), pp. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 253 259. Abstract | Full Text + Links | PDF (142 K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 55. V. Menon, R.T. Anagnoson, G.H. Glover and A. Pfefferbaum, Functional magnetic resonance <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; imaging evidence for disrupted basal ganglia function in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiat. 158 (2001), <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; pp. 646 649. Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-PsycINFO&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 56. F.A. Middleton and P.L. Strick, Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops: motor and cognitive circuits. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Brain Res. Rev. 31 (2000), pp. 236 250. Abstract | Full Text + Links | PDF (370 K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 57. S. Tekin and J.L. Cummings, Frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits and clinical neuropsychiatry. An <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; update. J. Psychosom. Res. 53 (2002), pp. 647 654. Abstract | Full Text + Links | PDF (127 K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 58. G. Tsai and J.T. Coyle, Glutamatergic mechanisms in schizophrenia. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Toxicol. 42 (2002), pp. 165 179. Abstract-Elsevier BIOBASE | Abstract-EMBASE | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-PsycINFO | Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 59. R.G. Heath, Modulation of emotion with a brain pacemaker. Treatment for intractable psychiatric <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; illness. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 165 (1977), pp. 300 317. Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-PsycINFO | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-EMBASE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 60. G. Northoff, Catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome: psychopathology and pathophysiology. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; J. Neural. Transm. 109 (2002), pp. 1453 1467. Abstract-Elsevier BIOBASE | Abstract-EMBASE | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 61. S.S. Shergill, M.J. Brammer, S.C.R. Williams, R.M. Murray and P.K. McGuire, Mapping auditory <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; hallucinations in schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 57 <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (2000), pp. 1033 1038. Abstract-PsycINFO | Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Document | Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 62. V. Menon, R.T. Anagnoson, D.H. Mathalon, G.H. Glover and A. Pfefferbaum, Functional <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; neuroanatomy of auditory working memory in schizophrenia: relation to positive and negative <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; symptoms. NeuroImage 13 (2001), pp. 433 446. Abstract | Abstract + References | PDF (652 K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 63. G.A. O'Driscoll, A.-L.V. Wolff, C. Benkelfat, P.S. Florencio, S. Lal and A.C. Evans, Functional <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; neuroanatomy of smooth pursuit and predictive saccades. NeuroReport 11 (2000), pp. 1335 1340. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-Elsevier BIOBASE | Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 64. N. Ojeda, F. Ortuno, J. Arbizu et al., Functional neuroanatomy of sustained attention in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; schizophrenia: contribution of parietal cortices. Hum. Brain Mapp. 17 (2002), pp. 116 130. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-PsycINFO | Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-Elsevier BIOBASE | Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 65. P.J. Harrison, The neuropathology of schizophrenia. A critical review of the data and their <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; interpretation. Brain 122 (1999), pp. 593 624. Abstract-PsycINFO | Abstract-EMBASE | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 66. P.J. Harrison and M.J. Owen, Genes for schizophrenia? Recent findings and their <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; pathophysiological implications. Lancet 361 (2003), pp. 417 419. Abstract | Full Text + Links | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; PDF (72 K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 67. A. Ledebt, B. Bril and Y. Breni&egrave;re, The build-up of anticipatory behaviour. An analysis of the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; development of gait initiation. Exp. Brain Res. 120 (1998), pp. 9 17. Abstract-Elsevier BIOBASE | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 68. D.F. Stanitski, P.J. Nietert, C.L. Stanitski, R.K. Nadjarian and W. Barfield, Relationship of factors <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; affecting age of onset of independent ambulation. J. Pediatr. Orthop. 20 (2000), pp. 686 688. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-MEDLINE | Abstract-EMBASE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 69. S.M. Grantham-Gregor and E.H. Back, Gross motor development in Jamaican infants. Dev. Med. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Child Neurol. 13 (1971), pp. 79 87. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 70. J. Weiss, A. De Jong, E. Packer and L. Bonanni, Purchasing infant shoes: attitudes of parents, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; pediatricians, and store managers. Pediatrics 6 (1981), pp. 718 720. Abstract-EMBASE | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 71. M. Jacobson, Developmental neurobiology. (third ed.), Plenum Press, New York (1991) Section <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 10, Development of the cerebellum . <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 72. C.B. Pedersen and P.B. Mortensen, Family history, place and season of birth as risk factors for <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; schizophrenia in Denmark: a replication analysis. Br. J. Psychiat. 179 (2001), pp. 46 52. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-Elsevier BIOBASE | Abstract-Elsevier BIOBASE | <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Abstract-EMBASE | Abstract-MEDLINE&nbsp;&nbsp; | $Order Document | Full Text via CrossRef <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 73. E.F. Torrey, J. Miller, R. Rawlings and R.H. Yolken, Seasonality of births in schizophrenia and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; bipolar disorder: a review of the literature. Schizophr. Res. 28 (1997), pp. 1 38. Abstract | Full Text <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; + Links | PDF (362 K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 74. P. Jones, B. Rodgers, R. Murray and M. Marmot, Child developmental risk factors for adult <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; schizophrenia in the British 1946 birth cohort. Lancet 344 (1994), pp. 1398 1402. Abstract | Full <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Text + Links | PDF (742 K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 75. M. Isohanni, P.B. Jones, K. Moilanen et al., Early developmental milestones in adult schizophrenia <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and other psychoses. A 31-year follow-up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. Schizophr. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Res. 52 (2001), pp. 1 19. Abstract | Full Text + Links | PDF (260 K) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 76. B. Luna, K.R. Thulborn, D.P. Munoz et al., Maturation of widely distributed brain function <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; subserves cognitive development. NeuroImage 13 (2001), pp. 786 793. Abstract | Abstract + <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; References <p> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml;jsessionid=R1QX4OREEF0T5QFIQMGCM54AVCBQUJVC?xml=/news/2005/06/10/nfash10.xml&secureRefresh=true&_requestid=20996">High heels for men</a></h3> <img SRC="nfash10.jpg" height=139 width=199 align=LEFT> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; While women have for decades plundered the male <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; wardrobe, few men have been happy to embrace feminine <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; sartorial style. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; But Rui Leonardes, a young shoe designer, took a step <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; towards balancing the score at the Royal College of Art's <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; MA Fashion Graduate show in London yesterday with a <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; collection of high heels for men. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; His models teetered <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; down the catwalk in <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; six-inch, spike-heeled <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; stilettoes. The shoes, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ingeniously <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; constructed, were <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; hand-made in a mix <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; of leather, denim, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; tweed, wool and bright <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; nylon to match various <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; suits and trousers. <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; One bright pink floral <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; pair came with a <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; matching jumpsuit. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; "I wanted to question masculine stereotypes," said <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Leonardes, originally from the Azores. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; "I practised walking in them myself for two days. It's not <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; too bad. It's a bit like walking in cowboy boots, only <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; higher." <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The models were not so sure. "I was certain I was going to <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; fall over," said Tilal Imani. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Thomas Donocik added: "They pinch your toes a bit, but I <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; don't mind. It's very rock 'n' roll." <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Tibor Rohaly, a tutor in menswear technology at the RCA, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; had just 15 minutes backstage to master the art of the <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; catwalk stiletto-strut when one of the male models was <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; pronounced incapable of walking without wobbling. Other <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; menswear collections featured variations on the skirt and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; kilt, with Dracula cloaks and suiting recurrent favourites. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Womenswear tended to be warrior-like and the footwear <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; was generally practical and flat. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Stephanie Aman's collection featured chain-mail and silver <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; lace battle-tunics emblazoned with crusader crosses, <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; accessorised with knee-high gladiator boots. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Vrettos Vrettakos showed leather corsetry, seamed and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; pleated like armour, with flimsy chiffon draperies and <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Boadicea boots. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Royal College of Art show, which featured the work of <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 29 MA graduates, brought the 2005 student fashion season <br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; to a close. <hr WIDTH="100%"><img SRC="081184501X.01.LZZZZZZZ.jpg" align=LEFT> <h3> The Perfect Fit: What Your Shoes Say about You</h3> A woman's favorite pair of shoes is not merely an accessory, claims New York writer and stiletto enthusiast Cleary, but actually a window into her soul. The type of shoe that a woman wears can indicate her taste in clothing, her career goals and even her ideal mate. In this pocket-sized handbook, Cleary guides her readers through a "sole-searching" exercise to discover their inner "Shoe sun sign," then profiles the typical personality of each shoe type. For example, a flip-flop girl is "steady as a rudder," someone who "sparkles with the energy of being truly alive," while a woman who feels most comfortable in a T-strap usually has a "natural gustiness and Betty Boop-like cuteness." Filled with exhaustive puns like "sole-mate" and "arch-supporter," the book is as cheesy as a teen fashion magazine, and every bit as superficial. It is unlikely that a reader will learn anything about themselves that they did not already know before picking it up, but this breezy, illustrated giftbook will entertain those who love both fashion and horoscopes, but knows not to take either too seriously. <br> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <h3> <a target="_blank" href="http://www.asherbooks.com/3079_v.html">Benedictus Balduinus, De Calceo Antiquo</a></h3> <img SRC="balduinus1.jpg" > <br><img SRC="balduinus.jpg" > <br>Amsterdam, Andreas Frisius, 1667. 28 engraved illustrations and one inserted folding letterpress leaf with transcriptions of Roman inscriptions, and decorative woodcut initials from three series. Contemporary vellum. With the armorial Esterhazy-Plettenberg bookplate of Schloss Nordkirchen. First edition of two works on the history of shoes from Adam to the author's time drawing on references to shoes in classical texts, the bible and in the law. With many quotes of classical, biblical and legal texts and numerous illustrations of different shoes, from ice skates to papal shoes. Each book with an index of authors cited such as Homer, Aristotle, Ovid, Martial and St. Benedict. The title-page of the first work unambiguously includes the second ("B. Balduinus de Claceo Antiquo et Jul. Nigronus de Caliga Veterum") but the second work, with its own pagination and signatures, also has its own title-page for separate publication ("Juli Nigroni Genuensis de Caliga Veterum dissertatio subseciva"). Constantijn Huygens owned a copy of the Balduinus, presumably also bound with the Nigronus. <hr WIDTH="100%"> </body> </html>